List of Figures

List of Figures

Pagination for printed and PDF versions.

Figure 1.1. Larger study region with modern towns and roads.. 3

Figure 1-2. Tobler's (1993) Hiking Function models foot travel velocity as a function of slope. 16

Figure 2-1. Varieties of reciprocal exchange (after Sahlins 1972: 199). 31

Figure 2-2. Modes of exchange from Renfrew (1975:520). 66

Figure 2-3. Network configurations. 68

Figure 2-4. Model for inference about prehistoric exchange (from Torrence 1986: 5). 70

Figure 2-5. Log-Log fall-off curve of obsidian density (Sidrys 1976: 454). 84

Figure 2-6. Stages of production from quarry, local area, and region (after Ericson 1984: 4). 106

Figure 3-1. Chronologies discussed in the text. 124

Figure 3-2. Contemporary types of Andean zonation (Brush 1977: 12). 138

Figure 3-3. Diagram of institutions of Andean complementarity (from Salomon 1985: 520).. 140

Figure 3-4. Subsistence exchange for products by ecozone versus single-source, diffusive goods. 146

Figure 3-5. Known south-central Andean obsidian sources used in prehistory with least cost paths (Tobler’s function on SRTM DEM data) from the three major sources to sites in the region. 184

Figure 3-6. Cumulative frequency graph showing three major Peruvian obsidian sources by consumption site altitude. 187

Figure 3-7. Qillqatani data showing percentage of bifacially flaked tools and percentages of debris made from obsidian per assemblage by count (from Aldenderfer 1999c, in prep.). 195

Figure 3-8. Sumbay pitchstone projectile points. 201

Figure 3-9. Comparison of projectile point counts in the Ilave Valley and the Upper Colca. 204

Figure 3-10. Projectile Point Typology with Titicaca Basin chronology (from data in Klink and Aldenderfer 2005) 210

Figure 3-11. Chivay type obsidian distributions during the “Archaic Foragers” time (circa 10,000 – 3,300 BCE). 214

Figure 3-12. Chivay type obsidian distributions during the “Early Agropastoralists” time (3,300 BCE – AD 400). 232

Figure 3-13. Chivay type obsidian distributions during the “Late Prehispanic” time (AD 400 – 1532). 256

Figure 3-14. Type 5d projectile points from a Terminal Archaic level at Asana and Early Formative levels at Qillqatani. 278

Figure 4-1. View of the volcanic Chivay source area above the town of Chivay in the Colca valley. 310

Figure 4-2. Survey blocks in the Upper Colca study area are shown with modern production zones described in Table 4-1. 312

Figure 4-3. Temperature by Altitude at mid- and high-altitude Arequipa meteorological stations.. 315

Figure 4-4. Comparison of Temperature highs, means, and lows for August and January). 316

Figure 4-5. Mean monthly temperatures (°C) from data in ONERN (1973). 316

Figure 4-6. Precipitation by Altitude (left), precipitation in the study area. 317

Figure 4-7. Latitude against barometric pressure. 319

Figure 4-8. Exterior and interior of probable colonial pyrotechnical structure. 323

Figure 4-9. Tuber cultivation at 4200 masl surrounded by large tuff outcrops. 325

Figure 4-10. ASTER scenes with the terminus of volcanic breccia outcrop. 328

Figure 4-11. View of San Bartolomé (Block 2) area during the dry season t. 330

Figure 4-12. Select raw material sources in the central Andes. 333

Figure 4-13. Rock groups in the Colca region (based on Palacios et al., 1993). 336

Figure 4-14. Legend showing geological map units in maps that follow. 340

Figure 4-15. Geological map units and 2003 Survey Block boundaries (in gray) for the Upper Colca project study area. Legend shown in preceding figure. 340

Figure 4-16. Geological map units shown on ASTER scene from 28 Sept 2000; legend is shown in Figure 4-14. In general, red pixels show areas of photosynthesizing vegetation (bofedales). 342

Figure 4-17. Andesitic Tacaza deposits with breccias and tuff outcrops in the Quebrada de los Molinos drainage. The Chivay obsidian source in later Barroso deposits is found high above, on the right side of the photo. 345

Figure 4-18. The lower section of the Castillo de Callalli is known as “Cabeza de León”. 346

Figure 4-19. Detail of Chivay source, Maymeja area with INGEMMET geological map. 348

Figure 4-20. Glacial polish and striations (aligned towards camera) on lava flows adjacent to Maymeja workshop on the southern end of the Maymeja area. 354

Figure 4-21 (a). Small box in lower-right gully shows Q02-1, an obsidian flow eroding out of ashy-pumaceous soils below western arm of Cerro Ancachita. (b). This obsidian is of limited use for tool making because it contains vertical, subparallel fractures. 361

Figure 4-22. Obsidian gravels exposure in tephra soils east of Cerro Hornillo. 363

Figure 4-23. Geological map units with Uyo Uyo sampling locations. See Figure 4-14 for legend. Selected archaeological sites in the main Colca Valley shown in blue. 367

Figure 4-24. Bivariate plot showing Dysprosium against Manganese for Tripcevich 2005 samples. 370

Figure 4-25. Map showing locations of Colca valley obsidian source samples analyzed by MURR in 2005. 371

Figure 5-1. Criteria in designing regional survey from three stage research proposal including obsidian source survey, testing program, and concluding with the river valley survey. 397

Figure 5-2. GPS tracks from edges of most survey routes. 399

Figure 5-3. An example of a pedestrian survey line following a river terrace at a 15 meter interval.. 403

Figure 5-4. Mobile GIS implementation with ESRI Arcpad 6.. 406

Figure 5-5. (a) Arcpad screen showing a large site with loci and points.. 409

Figure 5-6. Maps for two different hypothetical sites recorded in less than one hour.. 411

Figure 5-7. (a) Structure of the archaeological Shapefiles with names and descriptions.. 412

Figure 5-8. (a) Example of proveniencing for four 50cm quads within a 1x1m unit. 422

Figure 5-9. Showing some of the percussive metrics, platform metrics, and measures of retouch invasiveness for ventral side (after Clarkson 2002) used in the Phase II analysis.. 429

Figure 5-10. Line of sight across hilly terrain results in specific cells and targets being in view or out of view. 440

Figure 5-11. Viewshed is not necessarily reciprocal, as the individual and the left can see the person on the right, but the opposite is not true. 441

Figure 5-12. Cumulative Viewshed using 5000 random observers and 10 km viewing distance. 442

Figure 5-13. The All_ArchID_Centroids table provides a single reference layer for all the ArchID numbers used in the projecta. 447

Figure 6-1. Artifactual lithic material types in the Upper Colca Project study region. 458

Figure 6-2. Proportion of obsidian for four colors (shades) of glass, by count. 462

Figure 6-3. Proportion of obsidian material as Ob1 and Ob2 (heterogeneities), by count. 464

Figure 6-4. Photographic comparison of the homogeneous Ob1 obsidian and the Ob2 obsidian with heterogeneities. 466

Figure 6-5. Complete projectile point weights and lengths by material type for the entire project area. Series 5 projectile points are excluded and chalcedony is combined with chert. 480

Figure 6-6. Projectile Point weights and lengths (when not broken) by material type for Block 1 and adjacent high puna areas of Blocks 4 and 5. Series 5 projectile point types excluded. 484

Figure 6-7. Possible Chivay obsidian source camps during Archaic Forager times. 486

Figure 6-8. Middle Archaic obsidian projectile point from Maymeja area [A03-184]. 489

Figure 6-9. (a) Small rock shelter at “Molinos 2” [A03-580] is filled with debris from heavy runoff. (b) A density of flakes, predominantly of obsidian, are found in profile in the flood channel. 494

Figure 6-10. Lithic scatters are associated with shelter provided by large boulders located along moraines [A03-539]. One surveyor that is visible in blue provides scale. 496

Figure 6-11. Obsidian scatters were found along the base of these viscous lava flows at 5040 masl [A03-291]. 497

Figure 6-12. Map of project area showing Reconnaissance Blocks 4 and 5 with diagnostic projectile points and logistical sites from the Archaic Foragers period. 501

Figure 6-13. Rock shelter [A03-229] passes behind the collapsed margin of the grey lava flow in the center of the photo. Walls are built to partially close off both of the two entrances. 502

Figure 6-14. Multicomponent site of A03-910 "Collpa" among crystalline tuff outcrops.. 506

Figure 6-15. Photo of moraines and bofedales of Escalera south-west of Chivay source. 509

Figure 6-16. Projectile Point weights and lengths (when complete) by material type for Block 2. 512

Figure 6-17. Archaic Forager sites in Block 2: Major sites described in the text. 514

Figure 6-18. A03-1050 consists of four rock shelters: A, B, C, and D. 517

Figure 6-19. Chiripascapa [A03-1014], Archaic Foragers occupation. 518

Figure 6-20. Huañatira [A03-900] and vicinity, Archaic Foragers occupation. 524

Figure 6-21. Rock shelter of Huañatira with circular mortuary feature visible inside. One meter scale showing on tape resting on rock along dripline (see also Figure 6-76). 527

Figure 6-22. Block 2 Archaic Foragers component from lithic evidence. 530

Figure 6-23. Projectile Point weights and lengths (when complete) by material type. 536

Figure 6-24. Archaic Period in Blocks 3, 6 and 5 (valley): Sites described in the text. 538

Figure 6-25. Block 3: Early, Middle, and Late Archaic projectile points and Aceramic sites. 539

Figure 6-26. Site of Kakapunku [A03-1000]. 541

Figure 6-27. The entrance of A03-1001 with looted cist tomb visible inside the rock shelter. 542

Figure 6-28. Cueva de Quelkata was dynamited by Majes Project road crews in 1976. Two people are visible for scale inside the shelter to the left of center. 545

Figure 6-29. Quelkata in 1975 redrawn from Chavez (1978: 20). Red dotted line shows estimated border of the portion of the rock shelter that remains after the dynamiting for road widening. 545

Figure 6-30. Quickbird satellite image of Quelkata area in 2005. The shelter is under the tuff outcrops immediately to the left of the bridge. Data courtesy of Google / Digital Globe. 547

Figure 6-31. A 65cm column of cultural deposits still exists at the back of Quelkata at a height of approximately 1.8m above datum (at head height between the gravels and the tuff in photo). 549

Figure 6-32. Profile of extant deposits at Quelkata shown in terms of relative collection units. 551

Figure 6-33. Cueva de Mollepunco (A02-3). 556

Figure 6-34. Petroglyph of camelid on wall of Mollepunco. 556

Figure 6-35. View westward from “Callalli 11” across quebrada shows the eastern edge of Callalli. 561

Figure 6-36. Callalli 11 [A03-599] on terrace on the east edge of the town of Callalli. 562

Figure 6-37. Chalcedony projectile point [A03-790] from Anccasuyo [A03-785]. 563

Figure 6-38. Map of the Sullullumba [A03-806], an Archaic Foragers site showing lithic loci on terrace edge 40m above the annual flood line. Image courtsey of Quickbird DG / Google. 567

Figure 6-39. Sullullumba [A03-806] along terrace edge above the upper Río Colca. Yellow notebook and scale bar are visible in the center-rear of photo. 568

Figure 6-40. Projectile points from Sullullumba [A03-806]. 570

Figure 6-41. The high density lithic locus A03-808 consisted of aphanytic volcanics and chert. 570

Figure 6-42. Block 6 Challacone - Ichocollo overview map. 573

Figure 6-43. Ichocollo complex along Quebrada Ichocollo. 574

Figure 6-44. Photo looking northwest across Ichocollo creek. 576

Figure 6-45. Testing at Quarry Pit Q02-2 with 1x1 test unit Q02-2u3. Snow remains in the pit. 587

Figure 6-46. A03-269 and A03-734 "Camino Hornillo" and modern trail system. 588

Figure 6-47. Apacheta (cairn) close to junction of the Escalera route with Cerro Hornillo. 589

Figure 6-48. Camino Hornillo showing (a) A03-268 and (b) A03-734 segments. Photos were digitally modified to highlight the route in red. 591

Figure 6-49. Block 1 possible Early Agropastoral settlement pattern with Series 5 projectile points. 594

Figure 6-50. A03-126 "Maymeja 1" workshop and vicinity. 596

Figure 6-51. View of A03-126 "Maymeja" from north. Terraced area A03-334 on upper level. Test Unit Q02-02 is just right of the orange bucket. Project tents are visible in corral A03-127. 597

Figure 6-52. (a) Workshop area of "Maymeja 1" showing proximity of bofedal, (b) Testing Q02-2U3, with the quarry pit [Q02-2] visible among light ash 600m uphill in the background. 598

Figure 6-53. Base of structure [A03-335] is formed by fifteen large, partially buried stones and measures 2.5m in diameter. 601

Figure 6-54. A03-126, 209, 275 Maymeja workshop and vicinity. 604

Figure 6-55. View looking south from above at A03-201 "Saylluta" with excavation of test unit Q02-2u1 under way in top center of corral by the orange bucket. Site datum is on top of the large boulder to the south of Q02-2u1 (just above test unit in the photo). 605

Figure 6-56. Blocks 4 and 5 showing Series 5 projectile point distribution. 609

Figure 6-57. Block 2 - Early Agropastoral occupation. 612

Figure 6-58. Pausa [A02-39] showing raised oval structures, lithic concentrations, large rock forming wall bases, and test unit locations. Site mapped with Topcon total station and dGPS. 618

Figure 6-59. Circular structure A03-557 extends from 1m behind the tape to just below the largest rocks at the back of the photo. 620

Figure 6-60. Testing u3 and u4 on north edge of structures A03-558 and A03-559. This photo is taken from above, from the base of the lava flow. 620

Figure 6-61. Early Agropastoralist settlement in Block 3. 624

Figure 6-62. Taukamayo [A02-26], a multicomponent site partially destroyed by a landslide. 627

Figure 6-63. Overview of Taukamayo [A02-26] on slump along base of hillside. Grey box shows area detailed in Figure 6-64, below. 628

Figure 6-64. Taukamayo [A02-26] detail showing two test units locations on cutbank margins of the creep area. Excavators are visible on right-side at A02-26u1 and provide scale for photo. 629

Figure 6-65. Non-local incised and stamped pottery from Taukamayo [A02-26], in the 2003 provenience it is A03-679. and A03-679.2. 631

Figure 6-66. Sixteen large andesite hoes were found at Taukamayo [A02-26]. 634

Figure 6-67. Block 1 Late Prehispanic features. 639

Figure 6-68. Three levels of terracing in [A03-275] below glacier polished rhyolite flow. Yellow tape shows 1m. 641

Figure 6-69. (a) Cutstone masonry [A03-339] from site A03-275 close to the workshop area at the Chivay obsidian source. Yellow tape shows 50cm. (b) Rim sherds from an 18cm diameter Inka-Collagua plate were found adjacent to this corner. 642

Figure 6-70. Blocks 1 and 4 overview showing possible route of Late Prehispanic canal. 647

Figure 6-71. Blocks 4 and 5 Reconnaissance - Late Prehispanic component. 649

Figure 6-72. Non-local sherd with geometric elements akin to Middle Horizon or LIP styles [A03-1056.1]. 653

Figure 6-73. Block 2 diagnostic artifacts from the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period. 654

Figure 6-74. Huañatira [A03-855]. Corrals, structures, and artifacts scatters wrap around the base of the lava escarpment. A small figure is visible on the right edge for scale. 656

Figure 6-75. Huañatira A03-817 and A03-855 multicomponent site showing corral structures. 658

Figure 6-76. Cist tomb with mortared stonework. 659

Figure 6-77. Block 2 diagnostic artifacts from the Late Horizon. 662

Figure 6-78. Block 3 Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period features. 665

Figure 6-79. Recently looted cocoon-type interment from A03-815. 667

Figure 6-80. Block 3 Late Horizon diagnostic materials. 670

Figure 6-81. Callalli Antiguo [A03-662] and surroundings. 672

Figure 6-82. A03-662 north sector of Callalli Antiguo agricultural sector. 673

Figure 6-83. Base of walls of structure A03-663 in Callalli Antiguo. 675

Figure 6-84. Collapsed wall of A03-663 structure. 675

Figure 6-85. Cores at Callalli Antiguo [A03-662] and vicinity compared with all of Block 3. 676

Figure 7-1. Principal lithic reduction in the northern African Gumu-sana assemblage (from B. A. Bradley 1975: Fig. 1). 683

Figure 7-2. Bifacial sequences diverge based on the original nodule form with arrows showing percussion direction (Pastrana and Hirth 2003: 204-205). 684

Figure 7-3. Radiocarbon dates on charcoal from test excavations in 2003 showing uncalibrated and calibrated dates as BCE from OxCal v3.9 (Ramsey 2003). 691

Figure 7-4 Map of quarry pit showing topographic surface acquired using a total station. 693

Figure 7-5. (a) Perspective view of quarry pit, (b) Perspective view bisected with an inferred natural slope. 694

Figure 7-6. The quarry [Q02-2] and workshop [A03-126] are 600m apart. In this image snow blankets most south-facing slopes but the quarry pit debris pile is visible protruding through the snow mantle. 695

Figure 7-7. Diagram of Q02-2 quarry pit and position of the Q02-2u2 test unit 698

Figure 7-8. Q02-2, view of quarry pit and u2 test unit from the north. 699

Figure 7-9. Q02-2u2 quarry pit south and west profile diagrams showing excavation levels. 700

Figure 7-10. South profile of Q02-2u2 at quarry pit at the top of levels 11/12. 700

Figure 7-11. Location of test unit Q02-2u3 in site A03-126 workshop. 710

Figure 7-12. Q02-2u3 workshop test unit west and north profile diagrams showing strata. 712

Figure 7-13. Q02-2u3 west profile at Maymeja workshop site [A03-126]. 712

Figure 7-14. Proportions of Tech Classes in excavation levels by count in Q02-2u3. 714

Figure 7-15. Retouched artifacts by Excavation Level. 719

Figure 7-16. Q02-2-u3 Cores by Level showing changes length and weight. 721

Figure 7-17. Canonical discriminant chart for core clusters from Q02-2u3. 724

Figure 7-18. Boxplots showing three clusters of Q02-2u3 cores with size measures. The tabular shape of C2 cores is apparent in their thinness relative to their length and width. 726

Figure 7-19. An example of a C1 core [L03-162.303], arrows indicate percussion. 727

Figure 7-20. An example of a C2 core [L03-162.305]. 728

Figure 7-21. An example of a C3 core [L03-162.280] showing a small area of thin cortex. 728

Figure 7-22. Clustered Cores from Q02-2u3 workshop test unit showing counts by level. 729

Figure 7-23. Q02-u3: Graph showing means of complete cores and cortical flakes. 731

Figure 7-24. Q02-2u3: Graph showing means of measures on complete obsidian flakes. 734

Figure 7-25. Canonical discriminant chart for complete flake clusters from Q02-2u3. 738

Figure 7-26. An example of a flake from the F1 cluster [L03-162.21]. 740

Figure 7-27. An example of a flake from the F2 cluster [L03-162.118]. 740

Figure 7-28. An example of a flake from the F3 cluster [L03-162.66]. 740

Figure 7-29. Graph showing Flake clusters by excavation level. 742

Figure 7-30. A02-39u3 (upper unit in photo) and u4 (lower) at basal levels. Top of photo is east. 752

Figure 7-31. Circular hearth (F1) in A02-39u4, level 5. Top of photo is north, unit is 1m on a side. 753

Figure 7-32. A02-39 "Pausa" – north, with Test Units 3 and 4, ovals, and inferred features. Compare with larger map showing ovals in Figure 6-58. 754

Figure 7-33. A02-39u4 Pausa test unit west profile diagram showing strata and levels. 757

Figure 7-34. A02-39u3/u4 Bar graph showing counts of lithics classes by excavation level. 758

Figure 7-35. Cumulative Frequency of A02-39 u3 & u4 showing Level 5 reduction against reduction for all levels. 760

Figure 7-36. Test unit A02-26u1 is a 1x1m test unit placed on the edge of a creeping landslide with an irregular extension area (1x) on the south edge of the unit. Top of the photo is north. 763

Figure 7-37. A02-26u1 Taukamayo test unit, north profile diagram showing strata and levels. 765

Figure 7-38. A02-26u1 Technical Class by Excavation Level. 768

Figure 7-39. A02-26u1 Material Types by Excavation Level. 768

Figure 7-40. Obsidian at Taukamayo A02-26u1, Ob1 and Ob2 compared. 769

Figure 7-41. Cumulative frequency comparing obsidian and non-obsidian flakes. 771

Figure 7-42. Flake metrics from Quarry area (Block 1) as compared with local consumption areas 774

Figure 8-1. View westward from obsidian production area A03-210 towards main Colca valley. 795

Figure B?1. Nodule from the Aconcagua source. Photo courtesy of Mark Aldenderfer. 870

Figure B?2. Nodules of Alca obsidian with brownish tint. 871

Figure B?3. Nodule of Chivay obsidian from Maymeja weighing 1750g and 23.3 cm long. 872

Figure B?4. (a, L03-161.341) nodule from quarry pit area. 873

Figure B?5. Nodule of Uyo Uyo obsidian with irregularities perhaps caused by air bubbles in the magma. 874

Figure C-1. Obsidian projectile points from the Upper Colca survey project.. 876

Figure C-2. Obsidian point (Cat. 609) from Terminal Archaic context at Jiskairumoko. 876

Figure C-3. Bifacially flaked obsidian “Wari style” points or knives from surface contexts. Photos courtesy of Bruce Owen. 877

Figure C-4 Rollout of Tiwanaku q'ero showing bows and black-tipped arrows (top) near the rim of vessel (Posnansky 1957: XXa). 878

Figure C-5. Early Nasca ritual obsidian knife hafted to painted dolphin palate (Disselhoff 1972: 277). 879

Figure C-6. Representations of black-tipped projectiles are diagnostic to Nasca B1 and B2 ceramics (Carmichael et al. 1998: 151). 880

Figure C-7. Paracas textile with figure holding black-tipped projectiles (Lavalle and Lang 1983: 95) 880

Figure C-8. Wooden hand mirror with obsidian inlay, Wari (Lavalle and Perú 1990: 185). 881

Figure C-9. Obsidian point hafted on harpoon found in a Paracas necropolis, Ica, Peru (Engel 1966: 180c). 881

Figure C-10. An obsidian point embedded in a human lumbar vertebra (from Ravines 1967: 230). 882

Figure C-11. Obsidian Point penetrating through arm muscle near left humerus found at Carhua in Ica, Peru (Engel 1966: 212). 882