UPPER COLCA ARCHAEOLOGICAL
|Survey Procedures||Site / Loci Criteria||Recording Procedures|
1. Survey Line-up
- Align along survey position facing our intended direction at 10-15m interval spacing.
- A Trimble Geoexplorer GPS unit should be on either end of the survey line.
- Radios distributed such that at minimum every-other person has a radio.
2. Begin Survey
- Survey direction and distance (determined from a map or from Arcpad) will be read over the radio. A survey leader will be specified as either “Left Edge” or “Right Edge”.
- Those with radios should repeat this information to those without radios and all should set their compasses to the general bearing indicated on the radio.
- If we are following a natural feature instead of a bearing, then the survey-leader must be monitored to because they may deviate from the general bearing. In this case, everyone should adjust accordingly.
- For example, if the left side is leading, this means that you should pay attention to what the person on your left is doing. If they swerve left, follow them in order to keep the spacing correct. Also check to make sure that the person on your right has noticed the direction change, especially if there’s a hill such that others can’t see the whole survey line.
3. Survey Process
- Keep lined up with people on either side of you. If they slow down to investigate something, then wait for them.
- We’re doing a systematic survey so we’re also trying to find out where people DON’T live – this is also important information. However be sure not to miss obvious site locations. Check all around boulders and rockshelters. Any kind of wind or weather break in this area, especially near water, is likely to be a site location.
- If you suspect you’ve found artifacts then consider the criteria in section B.
- Feel free to stop and investigate interesting findings for 15-30 sec, the rest of the survey line should wait for you. Try to evaluate the area in this time to determine if this is a site, and ask for help if you’re not sure. If it’s a site, call everyone over on the radio.
- Sites are recorded as described in section C.
4. End of Transects.
- At the end of a survey transect we’ll swing around like a door so that the person on the left side of one transect is on the left side of the next transect (this person shifts over only 15m). The person on the outside has to walk all the way around. This is also good time to discuss what we’ve seen.
5. Edge Person Priorities
- The two surveyors on the edge have particularly important roles because they must guide our progress and manage GPS units simultaneously.
- Keep our survey line on track by following our bearing or our guiding feature. Keep an eye on your compass or, if you’re the lead person keep an eye on your feature.
- Make sure you have the right GPS unit (Unit A = Left, Unit B = Right)
- Turn on GPS unit, “Capture Data > Open Rover File > Select Feature > Survey Route-l
- And make sure you’re actually gathering points. If the unit says “PAUSE” it’s running, if it says “RESUME” then that means it’s paused. PAUSE the unit if you leave your survey route at all.
- PAUSE / TURN OFF YOUR GPS while we record sites or eat lunch in order to save batteries.
- If you’re walking along a stream bed or some other feature use the SURVEY-RIO-l or SURVEY-FEAT-l features to indicate that you’re also mapping in some feature.
- To set a Waypoint: NAVIGATION > CONFIGURATION > ADD NEW WAYPOINT
(maybe CLEAR ALL WAYPOINTS first to avoid confusion).
- TO FIND A WAYPOINT: NAVIGATION > TO WAYPOINT > SELECT WAYPOINT #
- AZIMUTH is your general direction, BEARING is relative to your most recent reading.
Have you found a site?
If there’s at least five definite artifacts in no more than 10m2 then yes!
SITE-A: 5 artifacts within 10 m2
LITHIC-A: Low Density: 1 artifact every 2 m2
LITHIC-A: Medium Density: 5-10 artifacts every 1 m2
LITHIC-A: High Density: 10+ artifacts every 1 m2
1. Begin Site Recording.
- Mill around for 30 seconds or so and check the extent of what you’ve found before calling us all in for site recording. Try to go to the middle of the site if it’s obvious.
- When a site is found the survey stops, GPS units are turned off and everyone comes into the site.
2. Order of operations
- Establish a site boundary. Determine the site extent first so we don’t waste time outside site are. Use an ORANGE flag every 5m or so to delimit site boundary.
- From the site center we’ll divide the site into NE, NW, SW and SE quadrants and at least one person will be responsible for each quadrant. That person should identify lithic (BLUE flags) and ceramic (RED flags) concentrations and point locations. Double flag point locations with one additional ORANGE flag. Also note structures and use ORANGE flags around structure boundaries.
- Flag colors may vary depending on the site. For example, we may use flag color to distinguish lithic material types in a complex lithic site. In this case, use BLUE for obsidian and RED for other material such as chert. These often look good in photos.
- We will walk around the site and I will come by each Locus and Point with Arcpad and ask you about it. I will ask you the following questions about a Lithic Locus so please consider the following when you’re flagging out the perimeter of the locus.
Percentage of Locus
What % of Locus is Component 1? What % is Component 2?
Loci are generally homogeneous (i.e., they only describe lithic distributions, no ceramic or other material types) but they can have two components. Components can vary by any of the variables described below.
- Material Type of Component 1 and Component 2?
Choose from Obsidian, Chert (red, Chert (multicolor), Chalcedony, Andesite/Basalt/Rhyolite, Other
Level of Reduction
What is a typical level of reduction for lithics in Component 1 in this locus? Reduction in Component 2?
Primary: 100% dorsal cortex, Secondary 50-100% cortex,
Tertiary: 0-50% cortex, Advanced reduction: 0 % cortex.
What is a typical size of debitage in Component 1? Component 2?
Choices are: < 1cm, 1-2cm, 2-5cm, > 5cm
Locus Density for each Component
LOW: 1 artifact every 2m2
MED: 5-10 artifacts every 1m2
HIGH: >10 artifacts every 1m2
Don’t actually count the artifacts in every locus, this is an eyeball estimate.
Ceramic loci can have 2 components. The percentage of each component making up a locus is described, and they add up to 100%. Consists of “Ceramic Type” and “Period”.
Late Intermediate Period
Structures are generally walked around. Pay attention to the extent of the structure, the number of enclosed spaces, doors and window holes. Are the walls mortared? Are the walls single or double construction?
We are interested in the average wall width, height, and structure sizes.
Burials are also of interest. We may encounter cist tombs, chullpa towers, and other ceremonial structures.
OTHER ARTIFACTS TYPES TO LOOK FOR
Spindle whorls, groundstone, beads, metal.