Ch6 Survey Results

Survey Results from Research in the Upper Colca

6.1. Introduction to data presentation

The results of systematic survey in the Upper Colca study area are presented in this chapter with an analysis of the distributions of sites, features, and artifacts that were encountered in the course of the 2003 field season. Using methods detailed in the preceding chapter, materials from six survey blocks were mapped, collected, and analyzed in the vicinity of the Chivay obsidian source. This systematic survey work was complemented by test excavations at three sites, and the results and analysis of the testing program are presented subsequently, in Chapter 7. The research strategy included three principal survey areas (Blocks 1, 2, and 3) and a smaller separate tract (block 6) and in these four areas intensive, systematic survey was conducted that amounted to 33 km2. In addition, specific areas of interest in two extensive reconnaissance areas (Blocks 4 and 5), were evaluated in a region that measured 239 km2.

In this chapter, the data from three intensive survey blocks are presented. As the 20 km x 30 km project area consisted of the three separate blocks with different ecological conditions, and distinct social and economic histories, the project was, in some ways, three separate surveys. Prehistoric activities were distinct in the three major ecological zones: (1) the quarry area, (2) the high puna, and (3) the upper valley zone. In order to integrate these survey areas towards the common goal of documenting changes in the production and circulation of Chivay obsidian on a regional scale, the results of survey work will be presented here following prehistoric chronology, rather than spatially in terms of survey blocks. In other words, the execution of the survey work was largely guided by the geographic and logistical realities of working in three distinct zones linked by reconnaissance areas, but in terms of interpretation, the focus here is on large scale change through time in the vicinity of the Chivay source by considering all three zones simultaneously for each major time period.

The survey data is considered here in three temporal periods that were introduced in Chapter 3 - Archaic Foragers (10,000-3,300 BCE), Early Agropastoralists (3,300 BCE-AD 400), and Late Prehispanic (AD 400- 1532) - and within each period the evidence geographically by survey block. One consequence of considering all survey blocks by time period is that the variability within the study region at any given time is brought to the fore. The larger trends, and the variability, evident in each time period are explored here through a combination that includes: (1) summaries of raw data; (2) summaries of generalized data; (3) groupings by site, loci, and artifact type; (4) comparisons by environmental criteria; and, (5) specific descriptions for particular sites, loci, and artifacts.

These summaries were largely derived from quantitative information produced by the mobile GIS field methods described in Chapter 5, combined with lab analysis results that were linked to spatial provenience. This chapter begins with an introduction of cartographic conventions used in this chapter. Subsequently, specific evidence for variability of obsidian throughout the source area is explored, and finally the survey results are chronologically by moving through time from the Archaic evidence to the Inka period. These data are complemented by evidence from test excavations and lab analysis that are reviewed in Chapter 7.

6.1.1. Data presentation and cartographic conventions

Artifact abbreviations used in maps

Survey data and lab results from survey collections are presented in this chapter using a series of maps that strive to maintain spatial associations while representing the archaeological significance of particular artifacts and features. In order to convey lab results in their spatial context the following abbreviations were used.

Code

Material Description

Ob1

Homogeneous obsidian with conchoidal fracture

Ob2

Variable obsidian with heterogeneities such as bubbles and inclusions.

Ob1c, Ob2c

…Clear

Ob1cb, Ob2cb

…Clear banded

Ob1g, Ob2g

…Grey

Ob1gb, Ob2gb

…Grey banded

Ob1b, Ob2b

…Black

Ob1br, Ob2br

…Brown

Che

Chert

Cal

Chalcedony

Qtz

Quartzite

Vol

Aphanitic volcanic (andesite, basalt, rhyolite)

Table 6-1. Abbreviations for lithics used in maps, figures, and tables.

Characteristics of the Ob1 and Ob2 groups of obsidian raw material are described in more detail in Section 4.5.1. The decoration and origin tags are appended on other abbreviations as needed. The abbreviations are combined into label codes as in the following example

25.2Ob1g

4d, L.Arch

ArchID.Artifact#:Material

Projectile Pt Type, Period

Table 6-2. Example of a map abbreviation label for a diagnostic lithic.

Ceramics were likewise abbreviated for efficient presentation in map form. The following condensed codes were used in maps and tables throughout the document to display lab results from ceramics analysis.

Group

Abbreviation

Description

Measure

D: #

Diameter: Rim diameter in centimeters

Style

Ql

Possible Qaluyu

Ca

Colla

Ch

Chiquero

Cg

Collagua

Cg1,2,3

Collagua1, 2, or 3

Cg-Ik

Collagua-Inka

Ik

Inka

Period

MF

Middle Formative

F-MH

Formative - Middle Horizon

MH

Middle Horizon

LIP

Late Intermediate Period

LH

Late Horizon

Hs

Historic

Md

Modern

Part

Rm

Rim

Bd

Body

Hdl

Handle

Hdl-Rm

Handle and Rim

Bs

Base

Form

Ol

Olla

Osc

Olla sin Cuello (Neckless Olla)

Jr

Jar

Pl

Plate

Bw

Bowl

Bk

Beaker

Tt

Tortero (grittle)

Decoration

-p

Painted

-i

Incised

Origin

-l

Local

-nl

Non-local

Table 6-3. Abbreviations for ceramics used in maps, figures, and tables.

54.2:Cg2,LIP

D16: Rm,Bw

ArchID.Artifact#:Style,Period

Diameter(cm): Part, Form

Table 6-4. Example and explanation of a map label for a diagnostic ceramic.

Conventions used in site descriptions, cartography, and scale in field photos

Sites, loci and point locations were used to record archaeological features in the course of this survey. The presentation of survey data in this chapter will be organized around set of site typologies by time period were generated from fieldwork observations and through subsequent data analysis. The hierarchy of presentation is generally as follows: (1) larger time period, (2) site type grouping with general data, (3) individual site descriptions with ArchID numbers listed, (4) particular loci, points, or data tables relevant to the site. Thus, individual features were assigned ArchID numbers, but in the process of interpretation for this report the features (loci and points) were assigned to sites which were, in turn, assigned to a larger typology and time period. In this presentation, each principal site description will begin with the ArchID number for a given site followed by its text name in quotes, and finally in brackets the range of ArchID numbers associated with the site.

Maps in this dissertation are all in the modern WGS 1984 datum and UTM zone 19 South metric coordinate system and the Transverse Mercator projection. Most existing maps in the central Andes are in the Provisional South American Datum of 1956 (PSAD56) or "La Canoa" and transformations between these coordinate systems for the Central Andes were discussed in Chapter 5 (Mugnier 2001;Mugnier 2006). By using WGS1984 datum, the spatial data conform to the native GPS coordinate system, as well as to newly available spatial data available from government agencies and private data sources.

Another convention used consistently throughout this research involves photos. In photos of features where the tape measure is visible, the visible tape is always stretched to exactly one meter unless otherwise indicated. In artifact photos, the grid behind the artifacts consists of one centimeter squares.

6.2. Obsidian variability in the study area

The organization of prehispanic obsidian procurement at the Chivay source is clearest when the data is explored geographically, expanding out from the source area in Block 1. In order to become oriented to the Chivay source and vicinity, this section will begin by exploring summaries of obsidian artifact distributions in contrast with non-obsidian lithic materials in the vicinity of the source.

6.2.1. Material type by survey block

Lithic raw material in the vicinity of the Chivay source

Variability in material type throughout the survey area make clear the basic structure of lithic procurement in the area of the Chivay source.

/Figs_Ch6/RawMat_Blk.jpg

Figure 6-1. Artifactual lithic material types in theUpper Colca Project study region.

Obsidian

Volcanics

Chalcedony

Chert

Quartzite

Total No.

Block

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

1

381

97.9

2

0.5

0.0

6

1.5

0.0

389

2

369

72.9

71

14.0

11

2.2

50

9.9

5

1.0

506

3

149

39.3

45

11.9

26

6.9

139

36.7

20

5.3

379

4

190

85.2

9

4.0

6

2.7

18

8.1

0.0

223

5

235

75.6

13

4.2

15

4.8

36

11.6

12

3.9

311

6

22

39.3

6

10.7

6

10.7

19

33.9

3

5.4

56.

Total

1346

72.2

146

7.8

64

3.4

268

14.4

40

2.1

1864

Table 6-5. Counts of artifactual lithics material types throughout the study region.

The availability of raw material throughout the region is inferred from the variability by material type from artifact collections throughout the study region. In the volcanic region of Block 1 and Block 4, obsidian is the principal locally available material. Block 4 extends into lower elevations regions on the east and west, and chert may be available in streambeds in those regions. Block 2 has larger quantities of fine-grained volcanic stone, mostly andesites, and these were heavily used in Late Archaic. Chert is relatively abundant in Block 2 as well, which suggests that there is a chert source not far from that block. Blocks 3 and 6 show the abundance of chert and chalcedony available in the upper Colca valley area, and multicolor chert cobbles were observed in several stream beds in Block 3. Quartzite is also used in Block 3, a material that was observed eroding out of the ridgetops. Block 5, as with Block 4, appears to contain a variety of raw material types within its boundaries.

Nodules of obsidian had their geological origin entirely in the Maymeja area of Block 1 and the adjacent areas of Block 4. The only other exposure of Chivay type obsidian encountered in the course of this research was the Pulpera / Condorquiña flow - a small exposure of Ob2 obsidian nodules, all measuring less than 5cm, at the toe of a long Barroso lava flow near Pulpera in Block 5. The Condorquiña flow probably saw very little use in prehistory due to small size and poor obsidian quality.

Based on the assumption that the survey was comprehensive and that there are no other exposures of Chivay type obsidian in the Ancachita - Hornillo area, it is proposed that culturally-modified of obsidian was transported radially from the source area in Block 1 and Block 4.

Why quarry for obsidian when it can be found on the surface?

A quarry pit was located on the south side of Block 1 in the Maymeja area of the Chivay source. This quarry will be described below, as well as in Chapter 7 where the quarry pit is examined and the results are presented from a test unit placed in the debris pile associated with the pit.

(1) Larger nodules could be acquired through quarrying.

Energy was evidently expended in digging to extract obsidian at the quarry pit in Maymeja and the motivation behind this effort an important question. Looking at the general patterns over the entire study area is instructive because it reveals some general patterns that were counter to expectations of this research project. If the original nodules from the Block 1 area were of a larger size it may account for the quarrying activity observed in Maymeja.

Points and Tools

Cores

Simple Flakes

Total

Block

No.

mLn

sLn

No.

mLn

sLn

No.

mLn

sLn

1

4

38.2

10.0

110

48.5

8.7

88

38.7

14.9

202.0

2

3

27.0

4.7

8

38.9

7.7

26

23.8

10.9

37.0

3

3

27.8

2.4

9

41.9

8.0

14

26.3

11.1

26.0

4

-

-

-

33

41.6

7.5

34

34.9

12.2

67.0

5

1

28.0

-

11

36.9

11.8

82

22.0

9.9

94.0

Total

11

31.8

8.2

171

45.8

9.5

244

30.2

14.5

426.0

Table 6-6. Lengths of complete obsidian artifacts with > 30% cortex by survey block surface collections, showing means and standard deviations.

In Table 6-6 the length of cortical obsidian artifacts from surface collections from throughout the study region with a minimum threshold of 30% cortex are shown. It should be noted that tools and flakes must have 30% covering of dorsalcortex to qualify for this table, whereas cores need only have 30% cortex anywhere on the exterior surface to be included here.

The first indicator of differential activity in Block 1 is the sheer number of cortical cores in these surface collection data. Table 6-6 reveals that the mean size of cortical artifacts in all three technical classes is notably longer in Block 1, and that the second largest mean lengths are from Block 4, adjacent to the Maymeja area. The artifacts from Block 2 are surprisingly small considering that the Chivay source is only one day's travel from this location. The fact these cortical artifacts are small suggests that they did not have access to large starting nodules. Table 6-6 also shows that the cortical artifacts from Block 3 were slightly larger than one would expect considering that Blocks 5 and 2 are equidistant, if not closer, to the Maymeja area of the obsidian source than is Block 3.

(2) Obsidian from the quarry pit had more transparent coloration.

In the course of this research it was observed that there is variability in the transparency and color of culturally-modified obsidian throughout the study area and the spatial distribution is related to the appearance of natural obsidian in geological contexts. Chivay obsidian is renowned for its clarity and it is possible that material from one survey block had a greater frequency of transparency than did material from surrounding survey blocks. If clarity was a desirable characteristic of obsidian artifacts then the evidence may show a greater focus on production in areas where transparent obsidian was common. Much of the obsidian contained dark banding as well, and this banding was more visible with clear obsidian than when the obsidian matrix was a darker coloration.

/Figs_Ch6/ObsidColor.jpg

Figure 6-2. Proportion of obsidian for four colors (shades) of glass, by count.

Black

Clear

Grey

Other

Block

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

1

13

4.0

245

74.9

66

20.2

3.0

0.9

2

1

0.6

111

66.9

40

24.1

14.0

8.4

3

3

2.7

71

63.4

33

29.5

5.0

4.5

4

12

8.2

79

54.1

55

37.7

0.0

5

5

2.4

141

66.5

61

28.8

5.0

2.4

6

0.0

7

33.3

14

66.7

0.0

Total

34

3.5

654

66.5

269

27.3

27.0

2.7

Table 6-7. Obsidian artifact color (shade) by survey block surface collections. Includes obsidian with bands and without bands.

As shown in Table 6-7, Block 1 indeed has a higher fraction of clear obsidian than other blocks in the survey. The high incidence of clear obsidian at Block 2 (67%) further suggests that whoever was quarrying and reducing obsidian at the A03-126 workshop in Block 1 was also associated with the settlements in Block 2, as there is no naturally occurring obsidian in Block 2. As Block 2 is on the direct transport route towards the Lake Titicaca Basin, this evidence suggests that some of the clear obsidian from Block 1 was being consumed in Block 2 en route to the larger consumption zone of the south-central Andean highland region and the Titicaca Basin where Chivay obsidian was purportedly prized for its clarity. It should be cautioned that the distinction between grey and clear obsidian appears to be correlated with thickness. That is, a "clear" artifact is more likely to be considered "grey" if it is thicker because it appears to be less transparent as a result of thickness.

(3) Block 1 had more homogeneous Ob1-type obsidian.

A further line of inquiry relates to the question of presence of heterogeneities in the obsidian. The Block 1 area with both the quarry pit, and the greatest abundance of large nodules, did not entirely consist of Ob1 homogenous obsidian. Investigating all the artifactual obsidian collected from surface contexts in the course of this project by survey block, a number of general patterns emerge.

/Figs_Ch6/ObsidInclusions.jpg

Figure 6-3. Proportion of obsidian material as Ob1 and Ob2 (heterogeneities), by count.

Homogeneous: Ob1

Heterogeneous: Ob2

Block

No.

%

m%Cortex

No.

%

m %

Cortex

Total

1

355

93.2

36.6

26

6.8

35.4

381

2

329

90.6

6.1

34

9.4

15.9

363

3

96

64.9

15.4

52

35.1

10.2

148

4

140

73.7

23.0

50

26.3

31.2

190

5

172

73.2

30.8

63

26.8

22.5

235

6

17

77.3

1.2

5

22.7

2.0

22

Total

1109

82.8

22.6

230

17.2

21.7

1339

Table 6-8. Obsidian artifact material type by Survey Block surface collections.

Table 6-8 reveals that a small percentage of Ob2 material was actually found to have been used in Blocks 1 and 2, although the representation of Ob2 material was considerably higher in the other blocks in the survey. On the whole, Ob2 cores are decorticated to the same extent as Ob1 cores, although further upon exploration in Table 6-8) reveals that in Block 2 there appears to be a distinct preference for Ob1 obsidian as cores of this material have only 6% cortex while those of Ob2 have nearly 16% cortex. This is a pattern that might be expected, as the Ob2 obsidian has flaws that both negatively affect knapping quality and affect the visual appearance. However, the pattern is reversed in Blocks 3 and 5 where the Ob2 obsidian is decorticated to a greater extent than Ob1 material. There is a link between the color of the obsidian and the material quality because 45% of the grey obsidian is the Ob2 material, whereas for the other shades of obsidian the Ob2 ratios are smaller (10%-25%).

It was noted that in the Maymeja area of Block 1, unmodified obsidian nodules on the surface were often Ob2 material because they had small gas bubbles in them. Accordingly, it appears that some fraction of the obsidian that was knapped in the Maymeja area was made from this Ob2 surface material because it represented 6.8% of the collections from Block 1. The distribution of Ob1 and Ob2 material at the Chivay source will be further explored below prior to examining the results of the survey work in detail.

Further analysis of Ob1 and Ob2 obsidian types at the Chivay source

(a) /misc/image040.jpg (b)/misc/image041.jpg

Figure 6-4. Photographic comparison of the homogeneous Ob1 obsidian and the Ob2 obsidian with heterogeneities.

Building on the overview of the use of Ob1 and Ob2 obsidian in the preceding section (see Figure 6-3 and Table 6-8 above), further exploration of Ob1 and Ob2 distributions follows. The results show that Ob1 and Ob2 obsidian artifacts in the area of the Chivay source assume patterned distributions over space, and these distributions are probably linked to the use of obsidian for export and for bifacial tool production.

Projectile points made from Ob2 obsidian

Eleven obsidian projectile points (4%) were made from Ob2 obsidian; a surprisingly high number under the operating assumption that fracture and visual quality of the material were important characteristics in bifacial tool production. Briefly exploring these eleven Ob2 projectile points may shed light on the characteristics that guided material selection in prehistory.

Ob2 materials form a much higher percentage (15%) of the obsidian flake surface collection than do Ob2 bifacial tools (4%) of the obsidian tool collection, which suggests that Ob2 material was being knapped but apparently not bifacially retouched.

The projectile points made from Ob2 material tend to have small or low-density heterogeneities that do not appear to greatly affect knapping quality, although visually the pieces appear mottled. These points were found in the south-eastern part of the study area in the San Bartolomé area (including one from a Late Formative excavated context), and in the reconnaissance blocks 4 and 5.

ArchID

Block

Period

PPt Type

Weight (g)

Length (mm)

Retouch

Index

953.1

2

M. Archaic

2c

4.1

38.28

0.9375

820.1

2

3b

4.1

45.82

1

918.1

5

2c

6.9

48.73

0.96875

818.1

2

Late(2) -

T. Archaic

4f

2.9

31.13

1

231.10

4

T. Archaic - Late Horizon

5

5.3

37.62

0.84375

994.1

2

5d

0.5

21

1

1014.3

2

5

2.5

25.52

0.9375

1026.9

2

5

1.9

Broken

1

1038.3

2

5

11.3

19.9

2061.3

2

5d

1.2

Broken

Table 6-9. Projectile Points made from obsidian containing heterogeneities (Ob2).

Period

Ob1

Ob2

Percent with Heterogeneities

Total

Middle Archaic

18

3

14.3

21

Late Archaic

4

1

20

5

T. Archaic - Late Horizon

221

7

2

227

Total

243

11

3.9

253

Table 6-10. Ratio of Obsidian Projectile Points with heterogeneities.

Due to low cell counts, conducting a chi-squared test required aggregating the counts from the Middle and Late Archaic Periods. A chi-squared test on the aggregated table (Table 6-10) showed that the difference between projectile points from Group 1: Middle and Late Archaicand Group 2: the Terminal Archaic through the Late Horizonwith respect to the use of obsidian with heterogeneities is very significant (c2= 9.976, .005 > p> .001). It appears that Ob2 was very significantly less used for point production in the later time period.

Note that the material used for projectile point production in Block 2 was at times the cloudy Ob2, and it is likely that this reflects, in part, the availability of this material on the southern and eastern flanks of Cerro Hornillo. However, the vast majority of the Ob2 obsidian flakes are actually found in Block 3, at the site of Taukamayo.

Obsidian source material with and without heterogeneities

A number of the lag gravel deposits encountered in Blocks 4 and 5 of the survey are Ob2 material. Accordingly, obsidian artifacts from these blocks are higher in heterogeneities, indicating that there was a utility for this type of obsidian despite the imperfect matrix of the material. Investigating the distribution of Ob1 and Ob2 material across all obsidian artifacts (primarily flakes) shows that the Ob2 make up approximately one half of the obsidian artifacts even in Block 3 some distance from the Maymeja zone where Ob1 was observed in situ.

The mean size of Ob1 flakes is notably smaller, which suggests that more advanced reduction was occurring on the Ob1 material. There may be some size bias occurring with observations of heterogeneities because small flakes struck from Ob2 nodule will often appear relatively homogenous and clear if few bubbles or particles are included in the glass in that portion of the flake.

Homogeneous (Ob1)

Heterogeneous (Ob2)

Total count

Block

No.

m Length (mm)

m Weight (g)

No.

m Length (mm)

m Weight (g)

1

315

40.6

18.8

24

40.5

25.4

339

2

240

25.7

3.6

21

33.8

10.5

261

3

62

30.1

12.4

32

30.1

6.2

94

4

104

35.1

18.3

38

36.8

20.7

142

5

134

23.2

6.2

43

25.5

6.5

177

6

12

25.2

3.1

3

31.7

6.0

15

Total

867

30.0

10.4

161

33.1

12.6

1028

Table 6-11. Obsidian: mean sizes of complete Ob1 and Ob2 artifacts, by Survey Block.

These data, show patterns in terms of the mean length and weight differences between Ob1 and Ob2 artifacts. In all blocks, Ob1 artifacts are on average lighter than their Ob2 counterparts except for in Block 3. Furthermore, in most blocks the mean lengths of Ob1 and Ob2 material are very close but as the weights are different and therefore width or thickness must vary between Ob1 and Ob2 material. Further investigation of the metric data shows that, indeed, Ob1 artifacts have narrower and thinner medial measures, on average, than do Ob2 artifacts except for in Block 3 where Ob2 materials are thinner.

It appears that throughout the study region, Ob1 materials were preferentially knapped into artifacts that were narrower and thinner, but not necessarily shorter, than the Ob2 materials except for in Block 3. Ob2 material was much more common in Block 3, as will be discussed below, and it appears to have been used for more immediate butchering needs rather than for production of bifacial tools, a pattern that is consistent with the later date of the Callalli occupation. There is also a possibility of size bias where smaller Ob2 flakes are classified as Ob1 because no heterogeneities were evident in that particular small flake.

Discussion

The larger patterns revealed by these surface collections can be summarized as follows. First, the Ob1 material appears to have been available in the largest sizes in the Maymeja area of the Chivay source. Second, knappers in the Block 2 area appear to have made greater use of the Ob1 material, but for some reason they had smaller starting nodules as is evident from the smaller artifacts with ? 30% cortex. The fact that cortical materials in the immediate consumption area have much smaller sizes than those being derived from the Chivay source suggests that the largest Ob1 nodules were notbeing consumed in Blocks 2 and 3, and one possible explanation is that they were being exported to the larger consumption region.

We can gain further insights into the differential use of obsidian through the patterns associated with Ob1 and Ob2 material. These data relate to question of the importance of transparent, homogeneous obsidian. In Chapter 3 the relative use of Chivay and Aconcagua obsidian at Asana was discussed because it was inferred that later pastoralists may have been satisfied with Aconcagua material because they were less concerned with the aesthetic qualities of obsidian and more focused on its utility for shearing and butchering. The assumption being that visual quality was less significant for utilitarian applications. For projectile point manufacture, however, Ob1 obsidian appears to have been much preferred by pastoralists. In the pre-pastoral Archaic the use of homogeneous, Ob1 obsidian for projectile point manufacture was less prevalent.

The use of Ob2 can be considered in terms issues of access, aesthetics, and economy.

(1) Access:The obsidian with heterogeneities was found scattered across a larger region on the east and south-east flanks of Hornillo, as well as intermittently on surface elsewhere in the Blocks 1, 4, and 5 survey areas. In contrast, the Block 1 Maymeja area was the only zone with large nodules of Ob1 obsidian available, and under modern conditions the majority of these are beneath a layer of ash. These data suggest that obsidian procurement during the Middle and Late Archaic may have involved more frequent exploitation of surface materials simply because these groups did not have knowledge of, or need to, excavate to obtain Ob1 obsidian. Alternately, during the Terminal Archaic and onwards, quarrying for clear obsidian in the Maymeja zone was developed and greater quantities of clear obsidian were circulating.

(2) Aesthetics:The Ob1 obsidian appears, to modern eyes, that it would have had more value in cultural and prestige related functions. From a biological adaptationist perspective, Ob1 obsidian has higher costly-signaling value (Craig and Aldenderfer In Press), and one would expect both hunter-gatherers and pastoralists to emphasize obsidian free of heterogeneities for its signaling value. As was discussed previously, exchange of objects between individuals or groups as symbolic tokens is documented among hunter-gatherers as well as pastoralists. However, during the pastoralist period social hierarchy increases rapidly and under these circumstances it is possible that the social importance of Ob1 obsidian to a competitive leader during a period of dynamic transegalitarian is considerable.

(3) Economics:Pastoralist producers of projectile points could afford to be selective in the material that they used because projectile points were not necessarily "consumed" by subsistence hunting. If obsidian points are to be used as the principal means meat procurement, points will be broken and lost during hunting forays and there is therefore a need for less costly and easily replaced projectile points. During the pastoralist period, however, hunting for meat is supplementary to the meat available from the herd. Therefore, projectile point use becomes more discretionary because points are used for activities such as non-essential hunting, warfare, or symbolic exchange.

An additional economic component to the use of clear obsidian concerns the economy of projectile point production. Evidently obsidian was predominantly used for Series 5 (concave base, triangular) projectile points styles, and Series 5 points are much smaller on average than other projectile points. When only unbroken projectile points are considered, the mean weight of series 1 through 4 projectile point types is 5.69 g, sd = 4.92, while for Series 5 points the mean weight is 2.08 g, sd = 1.80. On average, Series 5 points are 2.89 times smaller than the other point styles, and therefore one could produce many more projectile points from a single nodule of clear, Ob1 obsidian if one were to make Series 5 points as opposed to an older, larger type of projectile point.

6.2.2. Production Indices

In his introductory chapter to an edited volume on quarries and lithic production, Ericson (1984: 4) proposed a number of indices for the study of lithic production systems. These indices are relatively general and therefore of limited use in this study, but they are included here because they provide comparable indices between quarry areas on an inter-regional scale. The indices were calculated for artifacts collected in the course of survey in 2003, and the indices were also derived for every level of the five test excavation units that will be discussed in Ch. 7. In these indices "Flakes" (a.k.a. debitage) are taken to be unretouched, flaked obsidian, while "Tools" includes retouched flakes, bifacially-flaked items such as projectile points.

Debitage Indexis calculated from the (Flakes) / (Flakes + Tools) using count, weight, or size ratio. This calculation is of limited value because obsidian "Debitage", or simple flakes, are widely used as cutting tools, and therefore as a measure of production "by-products" an index that considers simple obsidian flakes as "waste" is questionable because these so-called waste flakes are potentially razor sharp tools.

Cortex Index(Flakes ?20 % cortex)/(All Flakes) is indicative of the importation of raw material on site. Cortical flakes were defined here as those flakes having greater than or equal to 20% cortex.

Core Index("Spent Cores" with ?3 rotations)/(All Cores and Tools) to evaluate the degree to which cores are transported or are a medium of exchange. Here, spent cores are defined as those with greater than or equal to three rotations.

Biface Index(All Flakes with BTF ?7) / (All Flakes) for measuring biface production. BTF are defined here as those with a BTF Index of greater than or equal to 7.

Survey Block

No. Flakes

Debitage Index

Cortex Index

BTF Index

Core Index

1

158

0.635

0.627

0.133

0.160

2

71

0.203

0.394

0.183

0.049

3

65

0.492

0.246

0.123

0.134

4

51

0.381

0.765

0.020

0.188

5

151

0.699

0.596

0.026

0.077

Total

496

0.450

0.548

0.095

0.110

Table 6-12. Obsidian production system indices for surface survey.

Using only obsidian artifacts from surface collections, these indices show changing strategies in obsidian use with increased distance from the source. The Blocks 4 and 5 areas were inconsistently surveyed and sampled, and therefore the comparability of indices from those two blocks is limited. The Debitage Index shows that many more flakes than tools were collected in Blocks 1 and 5. Curiously, Block 4 is relatively low in the Debitage index (reflecting sampling bias), and Block 3 relatively high perhaps because Taukamayo has a relatively high number of flakes (but consisting of Ob2 obsidian) for the consumption zone. The Cortex Index in Blocks 1, 4, and 5 show that primary reduction was occurring with greater frequency near the Chivay source than it was in the residential blocks of 2 and 3. The BTF index shows that biface production was occurring at the highest rate in Block 2 (18.3%), but biface production was also occurring in Block 1 and 3 as well. The Core Index shows that cores were being reduced more frequently in Block 1 and 4, and remarkably low Core Index values resulted for Block 2 and 5. The low value in Block 5 for this variable probably reflects the lack of large residential occupations in that block.

6.2.3. Projectile Points and obsidian variability

Breakage of projectile points

Obsidian has low compressive strength and the behavior of the material is often characterized as "brittle" (Section 4.4), resulting in a high incidence of breaks in tools that inform as the use of the tool. Latitudinally snapped tips and midsections are typically associated with breakage in use, perhaps upon impact as a projectile. In contrast, broken haft elements, shoulders, and longitudinal breaks are commonly associated with breakage during manufacture or retooling. The evidence for breakage during manufacture is reinforced when the point has incomplete scar coverage because it suggests that the point was discarded during production.

Projectile Points and Material Types through Time

Temporally diagnostic projectile points can be used to look at changes in material type through time in the vicinity of the Chivay source using a time sensitive typology such as the projectile point typology developed by Klink and Aldenderfer (2005). Andeanists have observed that obsidian projectile points were more widely used with the advent of the small, triangular style recognized as belonging to later time periods (Burger, et al. 2000: 294). This style is referred to as the Series 5 point type and it is associated with the Terminal Archaic and onward. It is likely that the frequent use of obsidian for production of the smallest point styles, type 5D, was due to a change in technology, such as the adoption of bow and arrow technology (Klink 2005: 52). This interpretation is supported by the predictable knapping quality of obsidian and the ease with which pressure flaking can be used to produce small points that do not unbalance the arrow in flight, and because the precise pressure flaking also allows resharpening of arrow points with a minimum of loss of material.

Evaluating the entire Upper Colca Survey area, the diagnostic projectile points were found in the following material types. As described in chapter 5, the Series 5 points have not yet been analyzed as closely as the Series 1-4 points because the Series 5 points are not temporally sensitive to the same degree. Therefore Series 5 points are excluded from some tables below where these data are not yet available (as shown in Table 5-9).

Period

Point Type

Obsidian

Volcanics

Chalcedony

Chert

Quartzite

Archaic (General)

3d

489

449, 1019

394

Early Archaic

1a

355, 379, 380, 941, 1015, 1037, 1044.2

384

1b

398, 411, 493, 522, 945, 956.3, 1026.3

444, 514, 956.2

469, 1034

E. - M. Archaic

2a

512, 949

Middle Archaic

2c

517, 873, 953, 1016, 1023, 1035, 1036, 1044, 1062

822, 1021

790.3

3b

386, 820, 944

958, 1051

509, 942

951

3e

519

395

Latter part of M. Archaic

1002

Late Archaic

3f

490

390, 480

4d

960, 963, 964, 1017, 1018, 1024.4, 1024.5, 1048, 1067

94

38

Late2 - T. Archaic

4f

407, 450, 463, 818, 943, 954, 1031

364, 1057

486

Middle Horizon (?)

Poss.

4e

472

Table 6-13. ArchID numbers for diagnostic projectile points, Series 1-4 only.

Type

Obsidian

Volcanics

Chalcedony

Chert

Total

No.

mWt

s Wt

No.

mWt

s Wt

No.

mWt

s Wt

No.

mWt

s Wt

1

1

6.00

-

1

1a

7

3.14

1.68

7

1b

7

3.14

1.57

3

4.00

0.00

2

4.50

0.71

12

2a

3

2.67

1.53

1

8.00

-

4

2b

1

1.00

-

1

2c

12

4.55

1.92

3

4.00

1.73

1

3.00

-

16

3a

1

6.00

-

1

4.00

-

2

3b

9

7.78

6.08

2

7.00

0.00

5

4.40

0.89

16

3d

6

3.17

2.04

4

7.50

4.12

1

9.00

-

5

18.00

13.40

16

3e

2

5.50

2.12

1

4.00

-

3

3f

5

3.00

2.00

2

8.00

1.41

7

4d

3

11.00

8.54

11

6.27

3.35

1

4.00

-

1

9.00

-

16

4d / 3b or 3d

9

2.89

1.83

1

3.00

-

1

5.00

-

3

7.00

4.58

14

4e?

1

1.00

-

1

4f

11

3.45

2.54

2

2.50

0.71

1

2.00

-

14

Series 1-4 Totals

75

4.20

3.66

31

5.68

2.91

6

4.83

2.48

18

9.06

8.92

130

5

87

1.63

0.95

2

5.00

2.83

2

6.00

2.83

1

4.00

-

92

5a

6

2.17

1.60

1

7.00

-

7

5b

16

1.63

0.89

1

5.00

-

17

5c

2

2.50

0.71

2

5d

78

1.40

0.54

1

1.00

-

79

Other

35

3.06

2.31

7

4.29

1.98

4

7.25

2.36

5

9.20

7.40

52

Grand Total

299

2.39

2.38

41

5.39

2.73

12

5.83

2.52

26

8.50

8.14

379

Table 6-14. Projectile point mean weights by point type and material type for Upper Colca project. Two quartzite points were excluded.

Table 6-14 shows the weights of all projectile points found on the surface of the project area. It shows that obsidian points were much smaller and much more common in the Series 5 types, and that the few type 5 that are not made from obsidian are relatively heavy. Two quartzite points that were excluded from Table 6-14 include a quartzite point of type 3b that weighted 7g, the other was a probable type 4g (Cipolla 2005) with an excurvate haft and a convex base, and it weighed 14g.

The changing use of a particular material type in association with projectile points is informative in any study region with diagnostic point styles. In the vicinity of an obsidian source these data also have the potential to inform about whether obsidian was used for projectile points out of preference or out of need.

For example, there is a type 3B projectile point, diagnostic to the Middle Archaic, made out of quartzite found in Block 2. This point was found only 16.3 km from the obsidian source, and it was found in a zone rich in obsidian, andesite, and chert, yet the coarsest material in the region was used for producing this point. Heavy materials such as fine-grained volcanics and quartzites known to have been used for projectile when mass rather than sharpness and penetrating power was being prioritized (Ellis 1997), and this is perhaps the explains the use of quartzite in this instance.

Series 1-4

Series 5

Total

Block

No.

% Column

No.

% Column

1

8

10.67%

11

5.21%

19

2

44

58.67%

141

66.82%

185

3

8

10.67%

19

9.00%

27

4

8

10.67%

30

14.22%

38

5

4

5.33%

9

4.27%

13

6

3

4.0%

1

0.5%

4

Total

75

211

286

Table 6-15. All obsidian projectile points by survey block.

The evidence from all obsidian projectile points (survey and excavation) from the project area shows the prevalence of obsidian projectile points in Block 2. Proportionally, there are relatively few obsidian projectile points in Block 1 which suggests that obsidian was not undergoing advanced reduction in the quarry area. This pattern becomes even stronger in the Series 5 projectile points. While neither Series 1-4 nor Series 5 appear to be involved in advanced reduction in the proximity of the obsidian source, these data suggest that by Terminal Archaic, when Series 5 points were first produced, obsidian acquisition was perhaps more of a special purpose provisioning activity rather than an embedded activity.

Are the changes in material type for projectile points significant?

The degree to which material type is more commonly used in later time periods is informative and the counts of projectile point raw material type by time period can be used to explore whether the apparent patterns in raw material use through time are the result of random chance. The data from Table 6-14 above must be aggregated and simplified to allow a Chi-Squared test.

Periods

Obsidian

Fine-Grained Volcanics

Chert & Chalcedony

Total

Early Archaic

16

3

3

22

E-M & M. Archaic

26

8

9

43

Late Archaic

7

13

2

22

Term Archaic - Late Horizon

227

10

17

254

Total

276

34

31

341

Table 6-16. Aggregated Projectile Point Styles by Material Type for the project area.

The differences between aggregated cultural periods as indicated by diagnostic projectile points and their respective material types are extremely significant (c2= 85.959, p> .005). This analysis is complicated by the fact that obsidian projectile points were very small in comparison to the non-obsidian points because obsidian points were used predominantly to make very small types of projectile points: the Series 5 group of points (Klink and Aldenderfer 2005: 47-53). If Series 5 projectile points are excluded material types can be compared more consistently by weight and length throughout the Archaic and across space. Table 6-14 under row "Series 1-4 Only" displays the count and weight of the comparable more projectile point types. Error bars for size measures on these Series 1-4 points are shown below.


/Figs_Ch6/All_Archaic/Fig_Size_By_Mat_Type.jpg

Figure6-5. Complete projectile point weights and lengths by material type for the entire project area. Series 5 projectile points are excluded and chalcedony is combined with chert.

The significance of the differences in mean length and weight between material types was evaluated statistically. An analysis of variance was conducted on these distributions comparing obsidian, fine-grained volcanics, and chert projectile points. The ANOVA test revealed that the difference observed in the mean weight between the three material type groups was extremely significant (F=5.152, p> .0005).

Such comparisons between obsidian and other material types bring up a host of issues that may be influencing the analysis. These issues include the fine knapping quality of obsidian and the likelihood that the material would be retouched and recycled. Additionally, pressure flaking was most often observed on obsidian artifacts, and along with the fine conchoidal fracture of obsidian, allowed smaller pieces of obsidian to remain viable tools. Finally, a sampling bias during survey might have been introduced by the high observability of obsidian by archaeologists.

All things being equal, distance-decay models would predict that in the immediate vicinity of a source of raw material the artifacts that have complete scar coverage and are apparently "completed" would be larger, on average, than other material types. Curiously analysis shows that even close to the obsidian source obsidian projectile points are smaller than non-obsidian points. Distance-decay models also predict that far from the obsidian source obsidian tools and flakes will be consistently smaller than mean tool weights made from locally available lithic materials. Data from the consumption zone including the Qillqatani rock shelter (data presented in Chapter 3 (Section 3.4.2), as well as other lithic evidence from the Ilave Valley (Section 3.4.4), show the expected pattern: obsidian tools are significantly lighter than tools of other, more locally available, material types.

Archaic site classifications

Sites occupied by foragers in the Upper Colca survey area were approached using site type classifications based on those used by Aldenderfer (1998: 52-75) in the Osmore drainage. These types of sites include residential bases, logistical camps, hunting blinds, and procurement locations. With very high rates of site reoccupation, discerning the Archaic occupation of any particular site was challenging, and the reoccupation and formation processes of sites strongly impact the older, Archaic component of multicomponent sites. Evaluations were based on the preliminary surface investigations in the course of a larger survey, and therefore the temporal component affiliations and site type assignments presented here should be treated as provisional. Furthermore, many of the sites identified in the Upper Colca were light surface scatters or deflated sites and therefore it is unlikely that archaeological knowledge will become significantly better concerning these sites.

Type

Description

Expectations

Residential Base

- Long term occupation or regular reoccupation by entire families.

- Apparently formalized use of space with artifact distributions.

- Typically associated with shelter and reliable water source.

Diversity in raw material types and in stages of manufacture in high density reduction loci. Multiple low density lithic scatters apparent throughout site. Artifacts associated with domestic and food preparation activities.

Logistical Camp

Short term but regular reoccupation by special task groups. Spatial location puts a priority on tasks.

Medium-Low assemblage diversity in material types but cores and range of reduction stages evident. Projectile point production failure may appear as tips and midsections in mid to late stage manufacture, and latitudinal snaps. Bases of projectile points from retooling.

Hunting Blind

Small, infrequently used or single-use area.

Low material type diversity. Resharpening and minor retooling.

Procurement and initial production

Associated with raw material source. Frequently exposed or otherwise non-optimal camp location.

High incidence of initial production stages with cortical material. Abandoned cores and decortication flakes.

Table 6-17. Classifications for Archaic components of sites.

These site type classifications were not assigned in the course of field work. Rather, the classifications are a combination of subjective observations during fieldwork by experienced team members and quantitative results from field mapping and from collections and subsequent analysis. Final classifications into site types as portrayed in Table 6-17 occurred in the course of the later analysis of survey data. The environmental characteristics of these site type classifications have been evaluated using GIS data and it is possible to generalize about these site types in comparison with "average" values for each survey block.

6.3. Survey Results: Archaic Foragers Period (9000-3300BCE)

This temporal period spans the calendar years ~9,000 - 3,300 BCE and includes the preceramic periods of Early, Middle, and Late Archaic, but it specifically excludes the preceramic "Terminal Archaic" time when pastoralism began to constitute an important part of the economy. The Archaic Foragers period in the Upper Colca region refers to the time that begins with the first diagnostic artifact production in the region through to the adoption of a predominantly food-producing economy with the Terminal Archaic. This discussion will consider the first peopling of the region as well, although data from surface survey cannot address those events directly for lack of diagnostic materials. Survey results show that during this time all three survey blocks were important parts of the local economy, but the puna rim area of Block 2 appears to have presented the greatest opportunities for foragers.

In reviewing the survey results below, Archaic components encountered during survey are isolated by the following characteristics:

(1) The presence of lithic reduction debris

(2) The natural shelter potential or other locational characteristics

(3) An absence of ceramics

(4) The presence of projectile points diagnostic to an Archaic chronological period

(5) An absence of late (Series 5) projectile points

As was previously mentioned, because of the high incidence of multicomponent occupations at large sites in this volcanic region, it is relatively difficult to isolate the archaic component of larger sites.

6.3.1. Block 1 - Archaic Source and adjacent high puna

/misc/image042.gif /misc/image043.gif

Figure 6-6. Projectile Point weights and lengths (when not broken) by material type for Block 1 and adjacent high puna areas of Blocks 4 and 5. Series 5 projectile point types excluded.

Relatively few Archaic Period projectile points were identified in the Block 1 area. The obsidian points that were found in Block 1 are, unsurprisingly, relatively large and nearly all are incompletely flaked. This is consistent with the relative paucity of obsidian points among the Series 1-4 projectile points overall where Series 1-4 obsidian points were only 25% by count of all the obsidian points as shown in Table 6-14. This pattern is even more pronounced when one considers that Series 1-4 point styles were used for over 7000 years while the Series 5 types were used for only 4800 years, or 7/10 as long. Furthermore, as was discussed above, many of these Series 1-4 obsidian points were Ob2 material which further reduces the probability that they were procured in the Block 1 Maymeja area.

The Archaic Forager sites in Block 1

In the Maymeja portion of the Chivay source all surface archaeological materials diagnostic to time periods prior to pastoralism belonged to multicomponent sites with a substantial pastoralist component. This settlement pattern reflects the exposed, windy nature of the Chivay source: all sheltered areas that may have had overnight occupation were reused. No sites that could be termed "residential bases", using the same criteria as the other blocks of the Upper Colca project survey, were identified in this area.

Projectile points dating to the Archaic Foragers period were located in course of the survey of Block 1. Unsurprisingly, these points were virtually all obsidian, and most appeared to have been broken during manufacture with longitudinal breaks and incomplete scar coverage. In addition, it appears that broken non-obsidian bases were occasionally abandoned at the obsidian source, perhaps in the process of reusing the haft with newly fashioned obsidian points. For example, the base of a chert point with evidence of pressure flaking [A03-122] was recovered on the southern slopes of the Maymeja area during the survey work.

/Figs_Ch6/B1_Archaic/Block1_Archaic.jpg

Figure 6-7. Possible Chivay obsidian source camps during Archaic Forager times.

Problems with isolating Archaic Foragers sites

One of the principal problems in isolating Archaic Foragers sites is that many of the artifactual indicators used in this research to designate sites as potentially belonging to the Early, Middle, or Late Archaic are not relevant in the obsidian source area. Of the three indicators that might potentially be used to designate sites from the Late Archaic or earlier, all three indicators have limitations.

(1) Aceramic sites.The use of ceramics in the high altitude obsidian source area appears to have been limited through the Formative Period (described in Section 6.4.1). Thus, the lack of ceramics is not evidence for a site dating to the preceramic.

(2) Material type ratios.A higher percentage of non-obsidian lithic material, primarily fine-grained volcanics, was used as an indicator of possible Archaic Foragers occupation in Block 3 of the survey area. This indicator doesn't apply to the obsidian source area, however, because virtually all flaked stone is obsidian in this area throughout prehistory.

(3) Diagnostic projectile points.Time sensitive projectile point styles continue to serve as indicators of temporal affiliation in the obsidian source area. However, as Block 1 consists of a lithic production area the projectile points found there were often incompletely flaked or broken during manufacture. As a result, a number of the projectile points did not belong to a particular point style.

The vast majority of scatters in the Maymeja area consisted of non-diagnostic scatters of obsidian with a high frequency of cortical flakes. It is possible that some of these scatters date to the period before the Terminal Archaic, and indeed many of these sites contain no ceramics. However, in this relatively high area remote from population centers, the fact that a site is a-ceramic cannot be taken as evidence that the site dates to the pre-ceramic. Given the intensification on obsidian production that occurred during the Terminal Archaic and onward, these non-diagnostic obsidian scatters are evaluated here as by-products of pastoral period intensification in the area.

Projectile Points

The human use of the Maymeja area dates to Middle Archaic (7000 - 5000 cal BCE) as is demonstrated by the presence of three transparent (one banded) obsidian projectile points of type 3b and one andesite point of type 3e depicted in Figure 6-6. The presence of 21 type 3b points in Block 2 (eight of them type 3b) indicates that the Middle Archaic occupation was predominantly a puna occupation. One of the type 3b points collected in the course of survey work was at "Molinos2" in the Quebrada de los Molinos at an elevation of only 4216 masl, suggesting that Molinos was used to travel between the lower elevation Colca Valley and the high altitude obsidian source and puna during the Middle Archaic.

Strong evidence of Early Archaic use of Chivay obsidian exists in the form of obsidian Early Archaic projectile points discussed among the data from the Block 2 and Block 3 areas of the survey, and in the early part of the Early Archaic at the site of Asana almost 200 km to the south-east. However, no Early Archaic projectile points were found in the Maymeja area of the Chivay source.

/misc/image044.jpg

Figure 6-8. Middle Archaic obsidian projectile point from Maymeja area [A03-184].

The type 3B Middle Archaic obsidian point [A03-184] found on a moraine between two bofedales is the strongest evidence of early use of the Chivay source from the Maymeja area itself (Figure 6-8). A foliate point was identified that has one spine, pressure flaking, and it was found on a moraine at 4824 masl on the northern side of Maymeja that was perhaps glaciated during the Early Archaic. This projectile point represents the earliest date, judging from stylistic attributes, in Chivay source area. A10Be date was acquired from a quartzite sample collected from moraines at 4650 masl (Figure 4-15) that suggests that the entire Maymeja area was glaciated until circa 9000 cal BCE (Sandweiss, 2005 pers. comm.).

Period

Point Type

Obsidian

Volcanics

Chert

Archaic

3d

124, 231.17

231.16, 780.3

M Arch

2c

110, 112

780.2

3b

111, 184, 292, 586

780

3e

539.25

L Arch

3f

231.12, 537.2

4d

260

L2 - T Arch

4f

118, 266

Table 6-18. Diagnostic Projectile points Series 1-4 from Blocks 1, 4 and high altitude areas of Block 5, identifed by ArchID number.

Evidence from diagnostic projectile points suggest that during the Late Archaic, the use of Block 1 actually decreased because artifact counts drop from nine Middle Archaic projectile points to three Late Archaic points. Evidence from the entire survey area shows that the use of obsidian for projectile point production drops, beginning in the Late Archaic, from 65% to 52% of diagnostic projectile points. An alternative explanation for the reduced presence of diagnostic projectile points at the obsidian source is that the manufacture shifted to less advanced stages of reduction at the source such that diagnostic point styles were not recognizable in the source area.

Obsidian

Volcanics

Chert

Column Total

E., M., and

L. Archaic

(Series 1-4)

No.

13 (27.7%)

4 (100%)

1 (100%)

18 (34.6%)

mWt (g)

11.0 (n=6)

11.4 (n=1)

5.0 (n=1)

10.3 (n=8)

sWt (g)

6.2

-

-

5.6

by Sum Wt

76

100

100

79.8

T. Archaic onwards

(Series 5)

No.

34 (72.3%)

-

-

34 (65.4%)

mWt (g)

1.74 (n=12)

-

-

-

sWt (g)

1.1

-

-

-

by Sum Wt

24

-

-

20.2

Table 6-19. All Diagnostic Projectile Points from Blocks 1, 4, and Block 5 upper puna. Weights included for unbroken points only.

Comparing projectile points between the Archaic Foragers period and points belonging to the later periods demonstrates that, while counts are low for Series 1-4 points, the mean weight of projectile points (11g) is 6.3x larger than the mean weight of Series 5 projectile points. It should be noted that variability in Series 1-4 points is also much higher, with a standard deviation of more than one-half of the mean weight. This is consistent with size differences in the point types as described by Klink and Aldenderfer (2005) but it underscores the different quantities of material invested in point production at the obsidian source.

Site Type: Logistical Camps

Based primarily on the distribution of diagnostic projectile points and associated environmental data in the Maymeja area, it appears that "logistical camps" are prevalent in the settlement organization of the Chivay source area during the Archaic. Foragers likely visited the Maymeja area as an embedded strategy, combining obsidian procurement with hunting as the high relief area and talus boulders shelter a relative abundance of wildlife. Today, hunters visit the area to shoot viscacha, and a small population of vicuñaare occasionally seen in the area.

Site size estimates for logistical camps were not included in this portion of the study because all of these sites are multicomponent and, in most cases, obsidian scatter sizes more accurately reflect later periods with greater intensification of production.

Logistical
Camps
m

Logistical Campss

All Data
B1
m

All Data
B1
s

All data in B1m

- Archaic Sitesm

No.

6

137

Altitude (masl)

4723.8

286

4806.8

215.1

-83

Slope (degrees)

13.15

3.3

11.5

5.9

+1.65

Aspect (degrees)

NW (83%)

NW (45%), W (18%), SW (16%)

Visibility/Exposure

8.5

7.1

15.1

11.9

-6.6

Dist. to Bofedal (m)

257.7

223

219.7

275.3

+38

Table 6-20. Environmental characteristics of potentially Archaic Foragers logistical camps in Block 1.

The sites identified as possible Archaic Foragers logistical camps in this study are, on average, lower in elevation because the sample is small and one site in the low portion of Quebrada de los Molinos pulls down the average elevation. The sites are on slightly steeper slopes and they are predominantly on slopes with a northwest aspect at roughly twice the rate of the entire dataset of archaeological features in Block 1. The pattern of settlement location that prioritizes steeper slopes with a northwest aspect would ensure the maximum of afternoon sun and therefore higher temperatures. The viewshed analysis indicates that these locations are slightly lower visibility and exposure than is typical in the Block, although the standard deviation on these measures is quite high. Finally, the logistical camps are slightly further from bofedales than is typical in the Block 1.

The land-use patterns of these six potential logistical camps in the obsidian source area are consistent with models of forager behavior (Kelly 1992). In these models, access to water is not a top priority, as short stays at dry camps are common. Expedient shelters were probably used at these obsidian source logistical camps due to relatively high mobility and short stays. According to this locational model, places with higher ambient temperature would have been a top priority for logistical camps because of the generally cold environment and the limited built shelter offered in logistical camp construction. These settlements contrast with the later pastoralist settlement pattern that prioritizes access to pasture and water for the herd. It is sometimes difficult to differentiate small forager logistical camps from the common small pastoralist camps that were encountered on the tops of moraines and other exposed locations that have commanding views of bofedales where the herd was presumably grazing through much of the day.

However, as is apparent in Figure 6-7, only one pre-pastoralist projectile point style [A03-184] was identified on these exposed moraine sites in the center of the Maymeja zone, and this point was located relatively close to the obsidian exposures at 4900 masl. The point was found at an area later used by pastoralists (with good views of bofedales to the north and south), the site had no other features consistent with forager logistical sites in the area, and therefore it was not interpreted as such.

A03-580 "Molinos 2" [A03-580 - A03-586]

The lowest elevation site in Block 1 is "Molinos 2" [A03-580], at 4216 masl. It is located below a large breccia boulder that came to rest on a terrace on the south bank of Quebrada de los Molinos. The site is located along the principal trail that climbs up Molinos from the town of Chivay. The north side of the boulder serves as a small rock shelter with the following dimensions: width 5.5m, depth 2.1m, height 0.8m. The site has been bisected by a stream that has become heavily incised from torrential runoff events, perhaps most recently from the El Niño - Southern Oscillation of 1997-1998. The effect of this runoff on the archaeological site is twofold. First, the rock shelter has been filled in with debris, as is visible in Figure 6-9a, and the overall dimensions of the rock shelter have been greatly reduced as it was probably higher and perhaps deeper prior to the infilling. Second, the downcutting of the stream has revealed hundreds of flakes of obsidian and chert in profile in the terrace below (Figure 6-9b).

(a)/misc/image045.jpg (b)/misc/image046.jpg

Figure 6-9. (a) Small rock shelter at "Molinos 2" [A03-580] is filled with debris from heavy runoff. (b) A density of flakes, predominantly of obsidian, are found in profile in the flood channel.

This site appears to have represented a regular travel stop between the obsidian source and the main Colca valley below. Projectile point evidence from the Early and Middle Archaic are relatively scarce elsewhere in the lower elevation portions of the survey, although 7% of the projectile points recovered during the Block 3 (Callalli) survey were characterized as Early and Middle Archaic. Steven Wernke's (2003: 541-542) survey in the main Colca valley found evidence of Early and Middle Archaic occupation at twelve sites in the form of diagnostic projectile points, and only one site (YA66) was below an altitude of 4000 masl.

A03-536 "Mamacocha 3" and A03-556 "Mamacocha 5"

These two sites share the characteristics of being located on lateral moraines that parallel the east-west direction of the Molinos drainage. Lithic scatters associated with large blocks of tuff that serve as small rock shelters are the principal features of these sites. A broken (longitudinally snapped) Middle Archaic 3e projectile point [A03-539.25] was found in one of these moraine sites; interestingly this point was made of andesite and was the only non-obsidian artifact found in this cluster of sites. A Late Archaic 3f obsidian point was also found in this area. Corral features and ceramics were identified here as well, indicating that the sites are multicomponent.

/misc/image047.jpg

Figure 6-10. Lithic scatters are associated with shelter provided by large boulders located along moraines [A03-539]. One surveyor that is visible in blue provides scale.

The occupation of these sites was likely related to the use of resources in the upper Quebrada de los Molinos valley, although the moraines are not an obvious place for site locations. The sloping moraines are far from level and there is little open space between boulder, however the sites are probably located on these moraines due to factors that include insolation on these north-west trending moraines, the availability of water descending from Maymeja and the flanks of Hornillo, and the shelter offered by the large boulders.

A03-291 "Hornillo 9"

This high altitude site consists of an obsidian scatter that parallels a lava flow that trends northwest-southeast. The scatter is located in the sheltered area below the flow on ashy soil and while water is not presently available in this area, the site is level, it is relatively sheltered, and insolation is high.

/misc/image048.jpg

Figure 6-11. Obsidian scatters were found on benches along the base of these viscous lava flows at 5040 masl [A03-291].

This site, and a neighboring site 70m downslope [A03-295] consist of obsidian scatters in areas sheltered by lava flows and the sites are adjacent to the lowest cost route out of the Maymeja area. The "Camino Hornillo" road [A03-268], described elsewhere, passes only 60m south-east of this area but, interestingly, no diagnostic artifacts were found that might connect these sites with the road. The only diagnostic artifact found at this site is A03-292, a possible 3b Middle Archaic projectile point with incomplete scar coverage made of clear Ob1 obsidian. At 5040 masl this projectile point represents the highest altitude diagnostic artifact found in the course of the survey. In some ways it is unsurprising that the only diagnostic point found at this site is from a time that predates camelid domestication: the camp offers no water or grazing and it would make little sense for herders to camp in this location when ample water and grazing opportunities lie on either end of Camino Hornillo.

A03-163 "Maymeja 4"

As shown in Figure 6-7, several diagnostic projectile points were found to the south-west of Maymeja. This access to the Maymeja area follows a trail that descends the lava flows from the western plateau of Cerro Hornillo. This trail is one of the most direct routes between the heavily traveled Escalera corridor to the south (in the Block 4 survey zone) and Maymeja. Just below the rim of the western plateau an obsidian scatter was found, along with one obsidian 3d projectile point [A03-124]; 3d is a style that is only diagnostic to the Archaic Period, generally.

At A03-255, another site approximately 500m to the south and on the broad rim of the Cerro Hornillo western plateau, another diagnostic obsidian projectile [A03-260] was found along with a number of ceramics. This area was a minor egress to the Maymeja area and perhaps was used by groups that were primarily interested in exploiting the bofedal in the lower part of Maymeja, and then crossing over to the Escalera area. It is also worth noting that the Camino Hornillo road [a03-268], along with a 4f Terminal Archaic projectile point [a03-266] were found just 500m east of here, but these features are interpreted as belonging to the Early Agropastoralist period described later.

Blocks 4 and 5 Reconnaissance Areas

The expansive Block 4 and 5 areas were evaluated opportunistically rather than systematically in the course of the 2003 fieldwork; and these blocks were examined to a limited extent during preliminary research in 2002. The targeted nature of this work in these blocks precludes any systematic evaluation of site distributions and settlement patterns because of biased survey coverage, however hiking across these reconnaissance areas provides a measure of the variety in each block. Data from the survey of these reconnaissance blocks provide insight into the access that these zones offer to the Chivay source, as well as the initial obsidian production activities that occurred there.

/Figs_Ch6/Block45_Archaic.jpg

Figure6-12. Map of project area showing Reconnaissance Blocks 4 and 5 with diagnostic projectile points and logistical sites from the Archaic Foragers period.

As with the settlement pattern in other lava rock areas of in the study zone, the arid and patchy environment of these blocks resulted in a relatively high rate of site reoccupation. The prevailing occupation pattern for the Archaic in Blocks 4 and 5 appear to consist of a few relatively large camps that are typically less than a few hundred meters from water, and often close to some kind of topographic prominence that offers both shelter and a view of the surrounding terrain. Isolated finds are also relatively frequent as should be expected of distributed subsistence, based on foraging.

The evidence points to an Early Holocene deglaciation of the Chivay Source area. A10Be date acquired from a quartzite erratic on a moraine to the east of the Chivay source area (data courtesy of Daniel Sandweiss, 2006), suggests that the terrain surrounding the source was glaciated at the 4650 masl level and higher as late as the Early Holocene (Figure 6-12and Figure 4-15). Establishing the rate of deglaciation for the different areas that may have been exposed in a given time period will require further glaciological study.

A03-229 "Puma 2" [A03-229 - A03-232]

This rock shelter, and the slopewash below it, is one of the more effective shelters occupied during the Archaic in this area. The shelter is above an active corral and immediately south of a medium sized estancia owned by the Puma family. At this rock shelter, a longer incidence of occupation is suggested by a higher density of lithics. The rock shelter itself is something of a tunnel with two entrances as a result of a collapse in the center portion of the shelter. Both entrances have had walls constructed across them, and the northern of the two walled entrances is visible in Figure 6-13.

/misc/image049.jpg

Figure 6-13. Rock shelter [A03-229] passes behind the collapsed margin of the grey lava flow in the center of the photo. Walls are built to partially close off both of the two entrances.

This shelter faces the morning sun and perennial water is available in a stream approximately 300m east. Unfortunately the construction of a large corral, on a relatively steep (10°) slope (the upper wall of which is visible in Figure 6-13), has resulted in a great deal of disturbance for artifacts just below this shelter. The many projectile points identified here were found among the stirred-up debris at lower end of this sloping corral.

Ob1

Ob2

Volcanics

Chert

Total

Biface

1

1

Biface Broken

2

3

5

Flake Broken

8

8

Flake Complete

1

1

2

Flake Retouched

1

1

Flake Retouched Broken

1

1

2

Proj Point

1 (3d)

1

Proj Point Broken

5 (3f,3d,unk)

1 (unk)

6

Total

9

5

1

11

26

Table6-21. Lithic artifacts from site A03-229 excluding eleven Series 5 projectile points.

This site contained a substantial number of points that are possibly Late Archaic, although the site also contained eleven Series 5 Term Archaic - Late Horizon points made from homogeneous Ob1 obsidian (that accounted for 60% of all projectile points by weight), but these were excluded from Table 6-1 because they are not Archaic. Based on the condition of the partially worked artifacts, much of this surface assemblage appears to have been abandoned during middle stage reduction in point production. One of the points was fine-grained volcanic, and had incomplete scar coverage. Of the obsidian artifacts, 45% of the projectile points and other bifacially flaked implements had incomplete scar coverage, and 66% were broken. These data suggest that this area, within a day's travel of the obsidian source, represented an intermediate stage in the lithic reduction trajectory as one departs the source. Interestingly, only 16% of the obsidian artifacts contained heterogeneities (Ob2) and these implements were nearly all classified as bifaces rather than as points. Ob2 obsidian was observed occurring as surface gravels only 4 km from this site, and the Maymeja source of Ob1 obsidian is nearly double that distance as the condor flies. Although this may be a signal from the later pastoral period, when shearing and other expedient uses for obsidian expanded, there appears to have been an emphasis on the use of Ob1 obsidian for point production while Ob2 obsidian was used for other bifacial tools.

Unfortunately, due to the disturbed state of the slope from the corral, and the artifact breakage that can result from animal trampling, further analyses of these data does not appear to be worthwhile. Future test excavations in the rock shelter may offer more insights into activities in this intermediate zone.

A03-777 "Puma 3" [A03-777 - A03-780]

As with the Puma 2 [A03-229] site higher in the valley, this site consists of a small shelter on the edge of a lava flow with improvements through the construction of rock walls.

Ob1

Ob2

Volcanics

Chert

Total

Biface

1

1

Core

4

4

Flake Broken

2

1

3

Flake Complete

1

7

1

9

Flake Retouched

1

1

Heat-shatter

1

1

Proj Point

1 (3b)

1

Proj Point Broken

2 (2c,3d)

3

Total

3

13

2

5

23

Table 6-22. Lithic artifacts from site A03-777 excluding 1 Series 5 projectile point.

Two patterns emerge from the lithic materials encountered at this site. First, the Pastoral period signature is weak as there is only one Series 5 point (and it was completely flaked, Ob1 material). The Archaic Foragers points are all Middle Archaic and they were made of volcanics and chert, not obsidian. A second notable pattern about these lithics is that it appears that there was reduction of primarily Ob2 obsidian at the site based on cores left at the site. These cores were not exhausted, one weighed 47 g and measured 4.5 x 4.1 cm. This is consistent with the evaluations of Ob2 obsidian more generally, in that it is used because it is widely available, yet there appears to have been a preference for Ob1 material and, in particular, for projectile point manufacture. This site is only 3 km from the exposures of surface gravels of Ob2 obsidian on the south-east flanks of Hornillo, but over 6 km from the Maymeja zone with the Ob1 material.

A03-910 "Collpa" [A03-910 - A03-925]

Collpa [A03-910] is approximately 9 km from the Maymeja area of the Chivay source, and it is also 8 km from Callalli to the north, therefore it is roughly equidistant between Block 1 and Block 3 survey areas. Collpa is an important site in this study because due to its position between the two survey blocks, it provides an opportunity to observe lithic consumption patterns midway between the obsidian source and the B3-Callalli zone. In fact, both the modern owner of Maymeja and his hired herder are from Callalli and this site of Collpa lies directly along their path from Callalli to Maymeja.

This site is located among a cluster of unusual-looking tuff outcrops that occur at the western extension of the Pichu formation to the south of Callalli (Ellison and Cruz 1985). This cartographic unit is described by the INGEMMET study as crystalline tuffs and ignimbrites. These outcrops are potentially in the same formation as the tuffs described and dated recently by Noble et al. (2003) as the ash flow sheets belonging to the "Upper Part" of the Castillo de Callalli section, a formation that was described above (Section 4.3.2). If so, then these tuff outcrops date to the Early Pliocene and are probably associated with volcanic activity at the Cailloma caldera to the north of the Colca valley.

/misc/image050.jpg

Figure 6-14. Multicomponent site of A03-910 "Collpa" among crystalline tuff outcrops. Two dark figures are visible, standing apart in the right and center-right half of the photo, providing scale.

The site of Collpa [A03-910] contains predominantly Series 5 projectile points and is potentially, then, a pastoralist occupation however several projectile points dating to the Archaic Foragers were also found here. The reduction strategies applied in this area are summarized below, although it is difficult to establish if these data on reduction activities at Collpa reflect the Archaic Foragers time or to the later pastoralist period.

The site contains several small rock shelters but the principal lithic scatter is located on a high point in the grassy center of the Collpa area. The site has distinctive concentrations of obsidian and high intrasite variability, however the temporally diagnostic artifacts are not patterned such that one can differentiate components in these scatters. Thus, the site will be considered in one group here.

Ob1

Ob2

Volcanics

Chert

Quartzite

Total

Biface

4

6

1

11

Core

11

5

4

20

Flake

98

32

8

29

2

167

Retouched Flake

18

7

5

30

Hammerstone

1

1

Heat-shatter

1

2

3

Perforator Broken

1

1

Projectile Point

6 (2c,unk)

1

7

Kombewa Flakes

5

1

1

7

Bifacial Thinning

8

1

1

10

Total

190

10

42

2

244

Table 6-23. Lithic artifacts from site A03-910 excluding five Series 5 Ob1 projectile points.

The site contained a relatively high frequency of Kombewa flakes (also known as Janus flakes), a flake with bulbs of percussion on both ventral and dorsal surfaces that appears to have served as blanks for a Series 5 projectile point production. This is an artifact type that will be discussed in more detail in the discussion of the Q02-2u3 test unit at the Maymeja workshop in Chapter 7. Collpa contained a relatively high frequency of bifacial thinning flakes (n = 10) as per the calculated BTF index.

The material types in use at Collpa are consistent with the geographical position of this site as it lies half-way between the Maymeja zone of the Chivay source and Callalli. The Maymeja zone contains Ob1 obsidian, the eastern flanks of Hornillo contain Ob2 obsidian, and the area of Callalli in Block 3 contains abundant use of quartzite and chert that had often been heat treated. At Collpa [A03-910] a number of cores of both Ob1 and Ob2 chert were recovered.

No.

mLength

sLength

mWeight

sWeight

Ob1

10

39.33

7.82

25.46

19.41

Ob2

5

34.26

13.67

15.98

19.72

Chert

4

36.55

2.18

19.55

7.60

Table 6-24. Complete Cores at Collpa [A03-910].

Reduction in the Collpa site shows that there was provisioning occurring from both Maymeja and the eastern flanks of Hornillo where Ob2 obsidian is found, as well as chert being used that perhaps came from the Callalli area where chert is abundant. Ob1 cores are clearly dominant at this site. Ob1 is more common, larger, and heavier despite the greater distance to the Maymeja area where this study shows that Ob1 obsidian is found. It is difficult to establish the antiquity of the Callalli ownership of Maymeja, but if movement between Callalli and Maymeja is a pattern that has a long history, then perhaps the greater presence of Ob1 obsidian reflects this larger mobility pattern.

A03-109 through A03-118 "Escalera" Area

A number of Middle Archaic points, as well as other Archaic points, were identified along the major travel route climbing up from the Chivay area of the Colca valley to the puna; hence the name "Quebrada Escalera". This was a route out of the Colca valley that was widely used until the 1940s when alternative roads were improved. These projectile points are essentially isolates although the A03-109, 110, 111 projectile points were found in a small cache adjacent to a large corral - possibly due to salvaging and aggregation by the pastoralists that use the large corral.

/misc/image051.jpg

Figure 6-15. Photo of moraines and bofedales of Escalera south-west of Chivay source.

The region of Escalera contains extensive moraines interspersed with large bofedales due to the runoff from the glaciers of Nevado Huarancante. A major thoroughfare that bypasses the Chivay source to the south climbs through this valley following the moraines. This area contains varied habitat that probably offered relatively rich hunting throughout Archaic, as well as serving as a transition zone between valley and puna ecological zones.

Discussion

Distributions of diagnostic projectile points present the strongest surface evidence of Early, Middle, and Late Archaic activities at the Chivay source, and therefore inference about this period is strongly influenced by the production and discard of Series 1-4 point types in prehistory. Many of the obsidian projectiles found in the Block 1 survey and the Block 4 and 5 reconnaissance area had incomplete scar coverage, which is consistent with the reduction pattern one would expect near the source. The preferential use of Ob1 over Ob2 obsidian is evident from the core discard and the tendency to use Ob1 for projectile point production. The presence of Chivay obsidian at consumption sites, both locally and regionally, during the Early Archaic suggest that the source area was accessible during this time, there is no evidence of the use of the Maymeja area until the Middle Archaic.

6.3.2. Block 2 - Archaic San Bartolomé

The Block 2 survey area parallels the edge of the Huarancante lava flow where geological features include the contact between the toe of a Pliocene lava flow and the open pampa. The pampa consists of ignimbrites weathering into a sandy soil and surface water in this area creates grassland with bofedales. Considering the study area on the whole, the greatest intensity of occupation during the pre-pastoralist Archaic appears to have taken place at San Bartolomé (Block 2). Sites in the area were surface collected in previous years by students from field classes at the Catholic University of Santa Maria in Arequipa (José-Antonio Chávez Chávez, Sept 2002, pers. comm.), but nevertheless a high density of projectile points was found in this area.

The evidence for long duration and diversity of activities comes primarily from the spatial distributions of projectile points and their material types. The San Bartolomé area was also an important zone during the subsequent pastoralist periods, due in large part to the rich bofedales mentioned above, that make differentiating pastoralist from Archaic Foragers (Early, Middle, and Late Archaic) occupations difficult. For foragers during the Archaic Period the area contains a rich mixture of reliable hunting opportunities and access to lower elevation vegetative resources in the Colca valley, two days travel away.

Projectile point distributions

Block 2 contained an abundance of projectile points diagnostic to the Archaic Foragers period. The wide variety of point types probably reflects the mobile strategies of Archaic foragers and the variable geology of the larger region.

Period

Point Type

Obsidian

Volcanics

Chalcedony

Chert

Quartzite

Archaic

3d

489

449, 1019

394

E Arch

1a

355, 379, 380, 941, 1015, 1037, 1044.2

384

384

1b

398, 411, 493, 522, 945, 956.3, 1026.3

444,514, 956.2

469, 1034

E-M Arch

2a

512, 949

L Arch

3f

490

390, 480

4d

960, 963, 964, 1017, 1018, 1024.4, 1024.5, 1048, 1067

Late Arch - T Arch

4f

407, 450, 463, 818, 943, 954, 1031

364, 1057

486

M Arch

2c

517, 873, 953, 1016, 1023, 1035, 1036, 1044, 1062

822, 1021

3b

386, 820, 944

958, 1051

509, 942

951

3e

519

395

MH

4e

472

Table 6-25. Diagnostic Projectile points Series 1-4 from Block 2 identifed by ArchID number.

Obsidian projectile points are extremely well represented in this area, but fine-grained volcanic material, primarily andesite, is also relatively abundant among the projectile point types except the Series 5 points. Chert and chalcedony points were present in Block 2, as well as chert knapping debris in low densities throughout the area, suggesting that chert nodules are available in relative proximity as well.

(a)/misc/image052.gif (b)/misc/image053.gif

Figure 6-16. Projectile Point weights and lengths (when complete) by material type for Block 2. Series 5 points are excluded, chalcedony is included with chert, and quartzite is described separately.

Obsidian is well represented by count, but obsidian is typically smaller regardless of material type, even if the small, triangular Series 5 point types are excluded. An analysis of variance of material type showed that these differences between mean weights was extremely significant (F = 11.511, p> 05). Remarkably, even in this region, which is a day's travel from the Chivay source, obsidian appears to be used in the smaller size range of projectile points of the larger types.

Comparing the counts for weights and lengths in Figure 6-16 reveals that approximately one-half of the projectile points made from both obsidian and fine-grained volcanic materials are longitudinally snapped (and therefore no length measurement was taken). Thus, this difference in weights between obsidian and volcanics does not reflect differential breakage by obsidian points as it appears that the mean lengths of non-broken obsidian points are also roughly 8cm shorter than the mean lengths of fine-grained volcanic points. Other possible explanations for the smaller obsidian projectile points include the in-haft resharpening and other forms of recycling that would result in smaller sized obsidian points in the styles of larger types. The was evidence of resharpening noted on some projectile points, but a restudy would be required to examine resharpening evidence consistently in the collection.

Block 2 Archaic Foragers Settlement Pattern

Archaic Forager sites in the Block 2 portion of the survey fall into two major categories as indicated by the surface materials. One category of site consists of large sites that are sheltered in at least one sector of the site, and the other type of site appear as more diffuse scatters along the edge of the grassy plain that are largely intermingled with the pastoralist settlement pattern. These two kinds of sites will be discussed below, along with the characteristics of the artifacts found in each type of site.

/Figs_Ch6/B2_Archaic/Block2_Archaic_Major_Sites.jpg

Figure 6-17. Archaic Forager sites in Block 2: Major sites described in the text.

Site Type: Residential Base

Archaic Forager period sites take two principal forms in this survey block. Residential bases, with what appears to be a great deal of redundancy of occupation, were encountered in a few locations with distinctive attributes (like shelter from wind). Projectile points styles diagnostic to Archaic Foragers time periods are encountered in a variety of contexts that include some areas near bofedales that were later intensely utilized by pastoralists, and some areas that show more spatially distributed occupational histories.

A03-1014 "Chiripascapa" [A03-1014 - A03-1057]

Chiripascapa was recorded as three sites due to variability in the artifact distributions and the differences in topography. Due to downslope movement in the steep talus zone in one portion of the site, and deflation in the lower site complex, the Archaic Foragers component of this site complex will be described as one group.

ArchID

SiteID

FileType

Description

Area (m2)

1014

1014

Site_a

"Chiripascapa"

24,550,334

1023

1014

Lithic_a

Medium Dens, 100 Obs

38,785

1024

1014

Lithic_a

Medium Dens, 89 Obs

124,943

1025

1025

Site_a

"Chiripascapa2"

27,927,630

1026

1025

Lithic_a

High Dens, 100 Obs

2,470,331

1038

1025

Lithic_a

High Dens, 30 Obs

1,086,213

1041

1025

Ceram_a

Painted LIP

186

1043

1025

Lithic_a

Medium Dens, 100 Obs

9,484,728

1045

1025

Struct_a

Wall Bases Only, Cave

128

1052

1025

Lithic_a

Medium Dens, 100 Obs

888,906

1049

1049

Site_a

"Chiripascapa3", Rock shelter

3,657,074

Table 6-26. Loci in Chiripascapa

Description

The upper part of Chiripascapa consists of one medium sized rock shelter and three small rock shelters at the base of an east-north-east facing portion of the Huarancante volcanic breccia lava flow escarpment. Below the rock shelters a sloping talus field (a 25° slope), littered with lithics as well as ceramics, leads to a small intermittent stream 20 vertical meters below the rock shelter. On the banks of this stream is a scatter of lithics and ceramics from a variety of time periods that extend downstream for approximately 300 m. The south bank of the stream has a modern estancia (Pausa) and a large corral below the associated buildings, seriously disturbing any artifact scatters on the south bank. The north bank of the stream is also disturbed. Large scars from bulldozers scraped off the topsoil in certain areas. The resident at the Pausa estancia explained that during the 1970s highway improvement for the Majes Project the road crews caused these impacts as they were looking for gravel sources in that area. Just north of this site complex is a large, active gravel pit.

/Figs_Ch6/B2_Archaic/a03-1014/four_shelters_diagram.jpg

Figure 6-18. A03-1050 consists of four rock shelters: A, B, C, and D.

/Figs_Ch6/B2_Archaic/a03-1014/A031014_archaic.jpg

Figure 6-19. Chiripascapa [A03-1014], Archaic Foragers occupation.

A03-1050 - Four rock shelters of Chiripascapa

These rock shelters appear to be well situated with respect to the surrounding geography. The shelters face east-north-east and so despite being in a dark and slightly damp corner of the lava toe they catch the morning and midday sun. It is worth noting that the estanciadepicted in the center of the map appears to be deliberately built with the same aspect. The rock shelter is relatively well-hidden because it lies about 50m up a side quebrada and therefore goes unnoticed unless you climb the quebrada. Despite the concealed position, this location actually offers a partial view of the most important resource in the zone: the bofedal one km to the north-east. It would also be possible to monitor travel through the Ventanas del Colca access to the upper Colca from this hidden location. The stream below the shelters was dry at the end of the dry season, but probably flows most of the year.

Due to low GPS reception in the rock shelter area the four rock shelters were mapped as a single Struct-L line "A03-1050" and differentiated as A, B, C, and D. Only one shelter, the one designated as A03-1050B, had the characteristics of a residential shelter. The dimensions of this shelter are as follows. Height:2m, Depth:6.5m, Width:7m. Due to the overhanging roof formed from the lava flow, a considerable area is dry outside of the walls of the cave. This area shows signs of having been improved as a patio and the "patio" area extends the depth of the dry zone by another 12.5m. The rock shelter 1050A was large but wet, and 1050C and 1050D were very small but dry.

Below the rock shelters a talus slope extends approximately 20 vertical meters to the stream. A variety of lithics and ceramics were identified on this slope, though only one projectile point was diagnostic to a period that falls in the Archaic Foragers timespan. This point [A03-1051] was a Middle Archaic andesite point and it had a transverse snap and missing its haft element, suggesting that it was broken in use.

Features and Artifacts

The stream enters the open, sandy soils of the pampa and on either bank of the stream, though primarily on the north bank, projectile points from throughout the Archaic sequence were found. Preservation is relatively poor on this section of the pampa. In addition to the bulldozer impacts mentioned above, the soils appear deflated and this partly explains the high density of projectile points, from virtually every time period, found in this area. It seems possible that the entire site scatter was formerly more aggregated on the western part of this map, and with riverine transport the artifacts have been scattered over the pampa.

ArchID

Artif. #

Material

Form

Type

Temporal

1015

1

Obsidian

Proj Point Broken

1a

Early Archaic

1016

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

2c

Middle Archaic

1017

1

Volcanics

Proj Point Broken

4d

Late Archaic

1018

1

Volcanics

Proj Point

4d

Late Archaic

1019

1

Volcanics

Proj Point

3d

Archaic

1021

1

Volcanics

Proj Point Broken

2c

Middle Archaic

1023

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

2c

Middle Archaic

1024

4

Volcanics

Proj Point

4d

Late Archaic

1024

5

Volcanics

Proj Point Broken

4d

Late Archaic

1026

3

Obsidian

Proj Point

1b

Early Archaic

1031

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

4f

Late-Term. Archaic

1034

1

Chert

Proj Point

1b

Early Archaic

1035

1

Obsidian

Preform

2c

Middle Archaic

1036

1

Obsidian

Preform

2c

Middle Archaic

1037

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

1a

Early Archaic

1044

1

Obsidian

Preform

2c

Middle Archaic

1044

2

Obsidian

Proj Point

1a

Early Archaic

1048

1

Volcanics

Proj Point

4d

Late Archaic

1051

1

Volcanics

Proj Point Broken

3b

Middle Archaic

1057

1

Volcanics

Proj Point Broken

4f

Late-Term. Archaic

Table 6-27. Diagnostic Series 1 through 4 projectile points from Chiripascapa [A03-1014].

The temporal distribution of projectile points from Chiripascapa shows that virtually every time period is well represented. One distinction worth noting is that obsidian is used almost exclusively in the later time period, while about 50% of the projectile points (by count) are made from obsidian in the early time periods presented by Series 1 - 4 points.

Projectile Points

Obsidian

Volcanics

Chalcedony

Chert

Series 1 - 4

10 (48%)

9 (43%)

1 (5%)

1 (5%)

Series 5

24 (96%)

1 (4%)

0

0

Total

34

10

1

1

Table 6-28. Representative proportions of material types by projectile point styles.

The medium and high density lithic loci along the creek banks are difficult to temporally isolate because there are later period diagnostics, including twenty-six Series 5 projectile points and ceramics dating from the Middle Horizon, LIP, and Inka periods found in the A03-1038 lithic locus. Most of the flakes observed at this site were obsidian and chert. A small concentration of andesite flakes on the south bank of the stream in locus A03-1038 was observed, despite the fact that all andesite projectile points came from the north bank of the stream.

Material Type

Obsidian

Volcanics

Chalcedony

Chert

Quartzite

No.

88 (62%)

32 (23%)

5 (4%)

15 (11%)

1 (0.7%)

Mean Wt (g)

5.05

18.28

16.7

10.91

11.5

% by Sum Wt

34.5%

45.6%

6.7%

12.3%

0.9%

Table 6-29. All lithic artifacts from Chiripascapa.

The surface materials included bifaces, cores, and flakes of all local material types except quartzite, which was rare at the site. Based on the mean flake size and the percentage of the total contribution by weight, fine-grained volcanics appear the most local to the area. Isolating any one of the lithic concentrations to a particular time period is difficult, but when viewed collectively including the point scatters in A03-1014 and A03-1025, and the rock shelters in A03-1049, the site complex is one of the oldest residential areas in the larger study area. The rock shelter A03-1050B and the built up patio has a high probability of containing a stratified intact deposit that extends into the earlier parts of the Archaic.

A03-900 "Huañatira"

Huañatira is a horseshoe-shaped valley with escarpments of lava flows of volcanic breccia on three sides and a small rise in the center where a single toe of lava extends down lower towards the pampa. The result is a sheltered, circular valley with a sloping ramp that climbs towards the top of the lava flow to the east of the valley. The Huañatira valley provides a moderately sheltered area with good views of the surrounding pampa, and it is defensive because it provides means of escaping to the higher lava flow terrain without being observed by pedestrians approaching from the pampa.

/Figs_Ch6/B2_Archaic/a03-900/A030900.jpg

Figure6-20. Huañatira [A03-900] and vicinity, Archaic Foragers occupation.

Description

The area has evidence of occupation from virtually every time period from the Early Archaic to the modern period. A maintained estancia is found just to the west of the study area shown in Figure 6-20, and a small driveway is shown on the map accessing the area from the east. A worn trail departs the estancia to the west; a travel route that probably dates to the pastoral period if not earlier. Projectile points were found scattered around the valley that date to all periods, however most of the large scale archaeological features in this area appear to be from the pastoralist period. The circular or oval features shown as structural loci (not labeled on Figure 6-20) are most likely of pastoralist origin. A rock shelter offering partial protection was found in the center of site 900 overlooking the pampa [A03-903]. This immediate valley area belongs to a very small local watershed, and during the dry season there was no apparent surface water. This small watershed prevented a great deal of surface runoff; a factor has probably helped to maintain artifact positions in their original contexts in this local valley more than at other sites from the survey.

ArchID

File Type

ArchID (cont.)

File Type

817

site_a

940

lithic_a

820

site_p

941

lithic_p

821

lithic_a

942

lithic_p

822

site_p

943

lithic_p

823

site_p

944

lithic_p

824

site_p

945

lithic_p

825

site_p

946

lithic_p

826

site_p

947

lithic_p

827

site_p

948

site_p

828

lithic_a

949

lithic_p

830

struct_p

951

lithic_p

831

site_p

953

lithic_p

900

site_a

954

lithic_p

902

lithic_a

956

site_a

903

struct_l

957

struct_l

904

lithic_a

958

struct_a

905

lithic_p

960

lithic_p

906

site_p

961

lithic_p

907

site_p

962

lithic_p

938

site_a

963

lithic_p

939

lithic_a

964

lithic_p

Table 6-30. Non-consecutive ArchID numbers at Huañatira [A03-900], an Archaic Foragers site.

A03-957 - Rock shelter

This is a relatively large rock shelter overlooking the pampa and the valley of Huañatira. Contrary to most residential rock shelters in the region, this shelter faces south-east and it is therefore not exposed to the warming sun and was probably a shelter that was cool in temperature nearly all year reducing its potential as a residential structure in the altiplano. The shelter offers a relatively large amount of residential space inside the dripline; the rock shelter is 7m deep from the dripline, 12m wide, and over 3m high. Virtually all of the interior space of the shelter is clear of rubble and useable for residential activities. Four projectile points from the Early, Middle, and Late Archaic Periods were found associated with this shelter. A recessed tomb dominates this shelter today, but given the size of the feature and the pattern of cave burial during the Late Intermediate Period, the mortuary feature in this shelter is interpreted as a LIP cist tomb. These features are described in the Late Prehispanic - Block 2 discussion (Figure 6-76), close to the end of this chapter.

/misc/image054.jpg

Figure 6-21. Rock shelter of Huañatira with circular mortuary feature visible inside. One meter scale showing on tape resting on rock along dripline (see also Figure 6-76).

Features and Artifacts

Some cases of disturbed artifact provenience are obvious, such as the three projectile points in a wash at the base of the valley shown as the three points on the eastern edge of Figure 6-20. Also the points below the Huañatira rock shelter on the north end ofthis site were found in the colluvial zone below the shelter and were apparently displaced.

ArchID

Index#

Material

Form

Type

Temporal

820

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

3b

Middle Archaic

822

1

Volcanics

Proj Point

2c

Middle Archaic

941

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

1a

Early Archaic

942

1

Chert

Proj Point Broken

3b

Middle Archaic

943

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

4f

Late - Terminal Archaic

944

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

3b

Middle Archaic

945

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

1b

Early Archaic

949

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

2a

Early-Middle Archaic

951

1

Quartzite

Proj Point

3b

Middle Archaic

953

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

2c

Middle Archaic

954

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

4f

Late - Terminal Archaic

956

2

Volcanics

Proj Point Broken

1b

Early Archaic

956

3

Obsidian

Proj Point Broken

1b

Early Archaic

958

1

Volcanics

Proj Point Broken

3b

Middle Archaic

960

1

Volcanics

Proj Point

4d

Late Archaic

963

1

Volcanics

Proj Point Broken

4d

Late Archaic

964

1

Volcanics

Proj Point

4d

Late Archaic

Table 6-31. Diagnostic Series 1 through 4 projectile points from Huañatira [A03-900].

Artifact proportions are consistent with other Archaic Foragers sites in the area, with approximately 50 of the projectile points and 65 of all collected lithic artifacts being of obsidian. A number of bifaces and flakes were found at this site, primarily of fine-grained volcanic stone and obsidian, and one obsidian core.

Material Type

Obsidian

Volcanics

Chalcedony

Chert

Quartzite

No.

50 (64%)

14 (18%)

3 (4%)

9 (12%)

2 (3%)

Mean Wt (g)

4.97

99.8

31.4

49.5

111.1

% by Sum Wt

10.4%

57.8%

4.2%

17.6%

9.9%

Table 6-32. All lithic artifacts from Huañatira.

As with other residential areas in Block 2, it is difficult to differentiate the Archaic Foragers component in this area of heavy reoccupation. The area contains a large rock shelter and it provides a measure of shelter on the border of the pampa, as do the other shelters in the area. Several Late Archaic projectile points are dark fine-grained volcanic rock, akin to the Late Archaic (4d) points found at that Chiripascapa [a03-1014] a short distance to the north.

Site Type: Sites with majority non-obsidian lithics

A substantial Archaic presence in Block 2 takes the form of diffused, low density scatters with associated diagnostic projectile points along the edge of the pampa and frequently close to water sources. These finds are very difficult to differentiate from the pastoralist site occupation pattern and therefore these features will be described as a group, followed by generalizations about the characteristics of the environmental and cultural features of sites of this type in Block 2.

While the Archaic Foragers use of space largely overlaps with pastoralist occupation areas in Block 2, the use of lithics appears to differentiate the two. As was discussed in Chapter 3 (Section 3.4.4), the use of obsidian for projectile points expands dramatically at the end of the Archaic Foragers period both near the Chivay source and in the consumption zone.

/Figs_Ch6/B2_Archaic/Block2_Archaic.jpg

Figure 6-22. Block 2 Archaic Foragers component from lithic evidence.

Method

The criteria used here for sites isolating through the dominance of particular material types are as follows for both lab analysis Lithics_I and Lithics_II. First, the lab results by SiteID (or isolated ArchID), showing count and percent, were shown in a table against material type in Arcmap. This table was joined to the All_ArchID_Centroids point geometry [link to Processing in Ch 5] so that lab results for lithic material types were aggregated by site or isolate. These features were then filtered by constructing a query where the artifact count for a geographical feature had to be greater than 5 so that relative percentages were meaningful. Finally, the index symbolized inFigure 6-22 is the Lithics_I lab results (the most comprehensive table) where Percentage of Non-obsidian lithic artifacts is greater than or equal to 50%.

Results

The use of non-obsidian materials such as chert, chalcedony, and especially fine-grained volcanic materials, dropped precipitously during the Terminal Archaic at sites in Block 2. While all lithic material types persist in use during the pastoral period, the herd management tasks of butchery and shearing appear to have been largely conducted using obsidian. Reviewing the percentages of sites with strong evidence of a pastoralist occupation (only Series 5 projectile points, a corral, water, and grazing opportunies) these sites commonly have between 20% - 40% non-obsidian flaked stone. Thus, the distinction between pastoralist and forager components based on material type is not firm, but the distributional pattern is reinforced by non-series 5 projectile point distributions, and this evidence is shown together in Figure 6-22.

Six sites have been identified with a relatively robust Archaic Foragers component in Block 2 and the environmental characteristics of these six sites will be compared with all locational characteristics of B2 sites in order to look for patterning among the environmental criteria of Archaic Foragers sites. These six sites include the following A03- 396, 884, 894, 900, 1014, 1049 and while diagnostics from the Archaic Foragers period were widely encountered throughout the region, these sites are selected as representantive for the larger Archaic Foragers time period and life way based on inference. Clearly the boundaries of the "site" are probably not coterminous with the Archaic Foragers component of these sites, nevertheless these measures serve as a general indicator of changes in the environment context of settlement through time.

Selectedm

Selecteds

All B2 Sitesm

All B2 Sitess

All B2 Sitesm

- Selectm

Altitude (masl)

4382.6

12.69

4393.2

25.7

-10.6

Slope (degrees)

7.86

8

8.33

6.34

-0.47

Aspect (degrees)

146.5

96.4

138.4

58.23

8.1

Visibility/Exposure

33.6

13.1

40.1

25.53

-6.5

Dist. to Bofedal (m)

497.3

212.2

307.5

261.5

189.8

Table 6-33.Environmental characteristics of selected Archaic Foragers sites in Block 2.

The high standard deviation values in the Table 6-33 "Selected sites" underscores the variability and inconsistency in these estimates. This comparison shows that the Archaic Foragers sites tend to be more sheltered/lower visibility than the pastoralist sites. As was previously noted, the Archaic Foragers sites are often adjacent to overlooks but the sites often do not occupy the high exposure area specifically. Archaic Foragers sites are considerably further than average from bofedales. This strong tendency in the data is probably accentuated by the intensification and maintenance of pastoral resources that has occurred in recent years. That is to say, as pastoralism is today the principal economy activity in the area, bofedales and attendant pastoral facilities have been well-maintained in the recent past, which is the criteria from which bofedales were selected from the ASTER satellite imagery for this measure. A further issue with respect to distance to water is the fact that many of the potential forager sites are adjacent to small streams that were probably seasonal and appear as dry in the modern dry-season ASTER imagery.

Discussion

Block 2 survey area represents a transition from the rugged lava flow topography on the west side of the block to the open pampa on the east side of the block. In addition, residents in the Block 2 area are able to exploit the higher density off resources in the puna while maintaining access and, perhaps, social relationships with residents in the adjacent lower altitude portions of the Colca valley.

A number of obsidian projectile points in this area were produced in the same general forms as chert points and, particularly, as fine-grained volcanic points. These forms are most akin to those documented at Sumbay, 30 km to the south. Given the greater local variability in point forms during the Late Archaic (Klink and Aldenderfer 2005: 53), the data from the Block 2 area provides an opportunity to study the local projectile point styles, best known from the Sumbay style points, in conjunction with the regional interaction documented through obsidian distribution data.

6.3.3. Block 3 - Archaic Callalli and adjacent valley bottom areas

The 2003 field season evidence shows that the Archaic Foragers period use of the river valley and adjacent puna appears to have been relatively light in comparison with the occupation in the B2 - San Bartolomé area. Diagnostic projectile points and aceramic sites represent the only strong evidence of Archaic Period occupation in Block 3 since only test excavations in B3, at the site of Taukamayo [A03-678], were dated to the early part of the Middle Horizon.

Projectile point distributions

The strongest evidence of human activity during the Archaic in the Upper Colca valley segment of the survey comes from projectile point distributions.

Period

Point Type

Obsidian

Volcanics

Chalcedony

Chert

Archaic

3d

599, 1080

25

10, 670, 810

E-M Arch

2a

1078

599.4

3a

1001

34

M Arch

2c

790.3

3b

1007

810.2

Latter part of M Arch

2b

1002

L Arch

3f

1099

4d

86

85, 1008

94

38

L2 - T Arch

4f

93, 809

Table 6-34. Diagnostic Projectile points Series 1-4 from Blocks 3, 6 and the valley portion of Block 5 identifed by ArchID number.

Projectile point counts shown in Table 6-34 include the Upper Valley areas of Block 3 and Block 6, and the counts also include projectile points from Kakapunku [a03-1000] that lay in the valley bottom segment of Block 5 on the perimeter of Block 3. The Upper Colca valley segment of the survey had relatively low numbers of Early, Middle, and Late Archaic Period occupation evidence as compared with other segments of the survey. As is evident from projectile point counts, only 26 of the 56 projectile points (46%) from this Upper Valley derive from the Archaic Foragers period, a 5700 year long time period.

Obsidian projectile points are well-represented throughout prehistory, although over half are Series 5 points from the Terminal Archaic and onwards. It is notable that obsidian is so well-represented in finished projectile point material types because evidence of production or maintenance in the form of obsidian flaking debris is far less common than chert in this area. Chert is found in the riverbeds in Block 3 and therefore it is the predominant local material. However, among projectile points in Block 3 obsidian predominates in all point styles except type 3D where obsidian is a close second. By count, obsidian is most frequent, but by weight obsidian points are smaller even if Series 5 point types are excluded.

(a)/misc/image055.gif (b)/misc/image056.gif

Figure 6-23. Projectile Point weights and lengths (when complete) by material type for Block 3, Block 6 and adjacent valley areas of Block 5. Series 5 points are excluded and chalcedony is included with chert.

The projectile points made from the immediately-available chert material type are larger than points of either obsidian or fine-grained volcanics (andesite). The difference in mean weights was assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test because the distributions were not normally distributed. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the observed difference in means between the three groups is significant (c2= 8.235, .01 > p> .05).

Block 3 Archaic Foragers Archaic Settlement Pattern

Archaic Foragers sites in the B3 portion of the survey can be grouped into three categories of sites. For Archaic sites these categories generally correspond with socio-economic activity and lithic provisioning, as indicated by lithics observed during fieldwork and representative grab samples collected from the surface. The three categories of sites include: (1) large, sheltered base camps; (2) small logistical camps, and (3) chert provisioning and initial reduction locations along river banks. These three groups will be discussed, along with the specific characteristics of major sites in each group, and subsequently the isolated or uncategorized sites will be described.

/Figs_Ch6/B3_6_5b_Archaic/major_archaic_sites.jpg

Figure 6-24. Archaic Period in Blocks 3, 6 and 5 (valley): Sites described in the text.

/Figs_Ch6/B3_6_5b_Archaic/ArchaicPts_b3-45k.jpg

Figure 6-25. Block 3: Early, Middle, and Late Archaic projectile points and Aceramic sites.

A number of aceramic sites were difficult to differentiate from ceramic period sites and thus an comprehensive map, showing all of the potentially pre-pastoral sites, is depicted in Figure 6-25. Inclusively, this group includes most aceramic sites and locations with projectile points diagnostic to the Early, Middle, or Late Archaic Periods.

Site Type: Sheltered base camp

A03-1000 "Kakapunku" [A03-1000 - A03-1013]

The site of Kakapunku [A03-1000] (a.k.a. C'oponeta) is located on the south side of the Río Llapa on a north facing bluff just upstream of the confluence of the Río Llapa and the Río Pulpera. This site consists of three rock shelters spaced about 15m apart along the base of a 10m high irregular cliff band that lies approximately 30m up the hill and south of the high-water line on the Río Llapa. There is a colluvial ramp below the rock shelters and on a terrace below that ramp lie number of lithic loci and some ceramics. The rock shelters are generally north facing so that they are oriented to the mid-day sun and the shelters are warm and well-lit.

ArchID

SiteID

FileType

Description

Area (m2)

1000

1000

Site_a

"Kakapunku"

3400.0

1004

1000

Lithic_a

High Dens, ~70 Obs

1771.3

1010

1000

Lithic_a

High Dens, ~70 Obs

76.7

1013

1000

Lithic_a

Medium Dens, ~70 Obs

148.6

Table 6-35. Loci in Kakapunku [A03-1000].

ArchID

Description

Height

Depth

Width

Width Entrance

A03-1001

Mortuary, looted. MNI=7

1.6

3.2

5.2

1.9

A03-1002

Domestic, warm rock shelter

4

3.5

6

5.1

A03-1003

Mortuary, looted. MNI=14

1.6

~8

1.4

1

Table 6-36. Rock shelters at Kakapunku [A3-1000], dimensions in meters.

/misc/image057.jpg

Figure 6-26. Site of Kakapunku [A03-1000].

A03-1001 -East rock shelter at Kakapunku

This is a looted mortuary context. The rock shelter is moderately difficult to access on a cliff face, and the entrance appears to have been formerly walled off. The original rock shelter height is difficult to determine because cist tombs in the floor of rock shelter have been excavated by looters. A number of complete crania and long-bones were present. The crania and long bones were examined in the field by Mirza del Castillo, a team member who is a physical anthropologist. From her in-field visual assessment she cautiously suggests that a number of the crania had female metric proportions, and that a number of the crania appeared to have hypoplasia of the bone marrow on the posterior edge of the parietal bones which is a possible indicator of anemia.

/misc/image058.jpg

Figure 6-27. The entrance of A03-1001 with looted cist tomb visible inside the rock shelter.

A03-1002 - Center rock shelter at Kakapunku

This rock shelter is relatively shallow but other characteristics made it appear to be to be an inviting residential location for a small group of foragers or pastoralists. The shelter is dry inside the dripline, north facing, flat interior, defensible, a short distance from water, and immediately south of a terrace for open-air activities where loci a03-1004 through 1013 are located.

A03-1003 - West rock shelter at Kakapunku

This rock shelter is a lava tube sloping upwards into the cliff face. It appears to contain many disturbed interments. Undisturbed human remains perhaps exist here but they were not visible on the surface.

Discussion

Kakapunku is another case of a multicomponent site where discerning the Archaic component is difficult. Five projectile points were identified belonging to different Archaic Periods, and combined with the ceramics (described later), there is a some affiliation with virtually all time periods at this site.

ArchID

Index

Material Type

Form

Type

Temporal

1001

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

3a

Early-Middle Archaic

1002

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

2b

Latter part of Middle Archaic

1004

1

Obsidian

Biface

n/a

1004

2

Obsidian

Biface

n/a

1004

3

Obsidian

Proj Point Broken

5

Late

1005

1

Volcanics

Core

n/a

1007

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

3b

Middle Archaic

1008

1

Volcanics

Proj Point

4d

Late Archaic

1009

1

Obsidian

Preform

5a

Late

1010

1

Obsidian

Proj Point Broken

5d

Late

Table 6-37. Selected Lithics from Kakapunku [A03-1000].

On the terrace below the rock shelter [A03-1002] the largest concentration of artifacts were noted. Samples collected from the medium and high density lithic loci on the terrace are approximately 50% obsidian materials with the non-obsidian primarily consisting of aphanitic volcanic stone. The northern high density locus, A03-1010, is eroding down the cutbank caused by erosion and it is possible that this terrace was significantly larger but has been truncated by fluvial erosion of the terrace. In sum, Kakapunku appears to have served as a regular residential area with three relatively small rock shelters.

A03-985 "Quelkata"

This rock shelter lies just below the confluence of the Río Llapa and Río Pulpera along a sweeping bend in the river channel where the Río Llapa first approaches the Castillo de Callalli formation. This rock shelter is well situated and probably served as a residential base through most of prehistory, however surface collections by Jose-Antonio Chávez Chávez (1978) for his Bachelor's thesis revealed primarily preceramic occupation levels with late, Series 5 projectile points. By the time Chavez was able to systematically investigate the materials in the rock shelter it had been largely destroyed in 1976 by the road construction crews associated with the Majes Project (Chávez 1978: 3). The rock shelter was dynamited because it is unfortunately located precisely at a point of the Río Llapa where the project planned to build a bridge on the road to the Condoroma reservoir. What remains today of the rock shelter is a concavity in the tuff with a shelter dry zone measuring approximately 150m wide inside the dripline. Chávez systematically collected and analyzed projectile points from this rock shelter but, curiously, the artifactual evidence available shows an occupation sequence going only as far back as the Terminal Archaic.

/misc/image059.jpg

Figure 6-28. Cueva de Quelkata was dynamited by Majes Project road crews in 1976. Two people are visible for scale inside the shelter to the left of center.

/misc/image060.jpg

Figure 6-29. Quelkata in 1975 redrawn from Chavez (1978: 20). Red dotted line shows estimated border of the portion of the rock shelter that remains after the dynamiting for road widening.

Description

The rock shelter was significantly larger in the recent past. Chavez (1978: 20-21) estimates that the dry portion of the rock shelter was 7m deep, 50m wide, and 2.65m high at the mouth. The sheltered area amounted to a 365 m2area with the bulk of cultural debris concentrated in the south portion of the rock shelter. Chávez estimated that the stratigraphy included up to 3m of cultural material. During the 2003 season a great abundance of cultural material was not observed in the slopewash between the highway and the river, as one might expect if the highway were constructed on such quantities of cultural fill, but the area has been much disturbed in recent years.

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Figure 6-30. Quickbird satellite image of Quelkata area in 2005. The shelter is under the tuff outcrops immediately to the left of the bridge. Data courtesy of Google / Digital Globe.

Quelkata is located at a major cross-roads in the local transportation network and it has probably been a significant landmark among people in the Upper Colca since the earliest human occupation of the region. The rock shelter mouth opens east-north-east and deposits still evident in the back of the rock shelter are approximately 5 vertical meters above the river and 2.5 meters above the modern highway. As the rock shelter is on a bend in the river the shelter appears to have been scoured out of the outcrop of welded tuff by the waters of the Río Llapa until the river channel was sufficiently incised that it not longer entered the rock shelter proper. Recently Noble (2003) collected a K-Ar sample from precisely this location and the resulting age of 20.7±0.6 million years indicates that the formation dates to the Early Miocene.

Geographical attributes of this location can be summarized as follows.

(1) Quelkata is a large, sheltered site close perennial to water source that probably provides year-round fishing opportunities.

(2) The east-north-east aspect results in warming by the morning sun.

(3) It is located at major intersection in local travel routes which suggests that many were familiar with the site, but also exposes the occupants to anyone traveling in this portion of the valley.

(4) Summits of the "Castillo de Callalli" tuff outcrops immediately above are defensible and appear to have been fortified during the LIP.

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Figure 6-31. A 65cm column of cultural deposits still exists at the back of Quelkata at a height of approximately 1.8m above datum (at head height between the gravels and the tuff in photo).

Preservation of Quelkata

Road crews associated with the Majes Project dynamited the rock shelter in 1976 but this was not the first important disturbance in this high traffic area. Significant impacts on preservation at Quelkata are the following

(1) Although the rock shelter lies approximately 5 meters above the dry season water level of the Río Llapa, the rock shelter has probably been scoured repeatedly by high water in past millennia. Quelkata is located on the outer edge of river bend precisely at a channelized portion of the river where 1000 year or even 100 year floods potentially entered the rock shelter and disturbed the contents.

(2) As noted by Chávez (1978: 17) a road has long existed in this area due to the fact that it is a crossroads location and, as a channelized portion of the river, it probably has had bridges prior to the modern bridge construction. With the mining history in the Cailloma area, a road was likely constructed to connect this ore-rich province with the Sumbay railroad sometime in the early 20thcentury. The dynamiting by the Majes crew was intended to widen the road at the bridge and the intersection, and it significantly impacted the rock shelter. However, the downslope colluvial outwash from the rock shelter, which are frequently deposits of great archaeological interest from a rock shelter, had long been disturbed by road construction and by fluvial erosion prior to the destruction by the Majes crew.

(3) The construction crews dynamited the site in 1976 and largely destroyed the southern portion of the rock shelter, the portion that Chávez (1978) describes as having the deepest deposits. There are still significant deposits at the back of the rock shelter, however. As part of the archaeological reconnaissance of the Llapa valley materials systematically surface collected from the rock shelter as will be described below.

(4) The intersection and bridge at Quelkata was a principal junction in the Arequipa highway network until 2002 when the highway connecting Arequipa with Juliaca was paved. Until the asphalting of the Arequipa-Juliaca highway virtually all of the highway traffic between Arequipa and Cusco passed directly in front of this rock shelter where one of the few restaurants and gas stations along the route was located. Thus, a relatively high number of travelers probably visited the rock shelter and its surroundings while waiting for transportation. Fortunately, the dynamiting of the shelter created a sheer 2 m wall so that a brief segment of 4thclass rock climbing is required to enter the rock shelter, discouraging casual visitors.

There are still cultural deposits in a broad but thin and shallow section at the back of Quelkata. While much of the strata along the back of the rock shelter are disturbed sand and river gravels, a cultural level approximately 60cm deep is found across a swath approximately 40m wide at the back of the rock shelter.

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Figure 6-32. Profile of extant deposits at Quelkata shown in terms of relative collection units.

Proveniencing

As GPS cannot function in rock shelters, a collection strategy was devised using a datum inside the rock shelter. First, the shelter area was mapped expediently using tape and compass from a semi-permanent datum established on large rock on the north end of the occupation area near the road cut. Artifacts were surface collected from Quelkata in four horizontal collection units that were given ArchID# 986, 987, 988, and 989 to conform to the horizontal collection strategy throughout the survey. The deposits in the back of the rock shelter occurred on natural shelves and the vertical provenience was retained by collecting these shelves from the top (level 1) to bottom (level 5). The lowest level, the shelter floor, appeared to contain a mixture of materials that had cascaded down from above.

Site Collection

In the 2003 fieldwork season 22 flakes and retouched flakes from the rock shelter were collected. These consisted primarily of chert, chalcedony, and andesite. Of the 22 flakes 10 (45%) were made from obsidian, but these obsidian artifacts amount to only 7% of the flaked stone artifacts by weight. A number of bones and goat horns were among the faunal materials collected from the upper levels of the rock shelter, above the rock ledge. It is possible that the horns were placed in this location to dry out.

Chávez Collection

In his Bachelor's thesis José-Antonio Chávez (1978: 52-70) describes and analyzes surface collections that he conducted shortly after the dynamiting of the cave. Chávez includes photographs and drawings of projectile points that appear to be primarily of Type 5B and 5D forms. Chávez reports that he collected 36 projectile points and that the largest group was the concave base form (n = 17) that are probably Type 5B or Type 5D, diagnostic to the Terminal Archaic through the Late Horizon. Of these concave base forms 15 of them were made from obsidian (88%) and the remaining two were chert. Pressure flaking was noted on 16 of the points (Table 6-38).

Obsidian

Non-obsidian

Totals

Unmodified

434

150

584

Modified

121

57

178

Total

555

207

762

Percent

72.8%

27.1%

100%

P.Pt Base: Convex

7

1

8

P.Pt Base: Flat

8

0

8

P.Pt Base: Concave

15

2

17

Probable Concave Base

12

0

12

Cores

2

3

5

Flakes - cortical

4

12

16

Flakes - noncortical

141

93

234

"Blades"

57

40

97

"Choppers"

5

5

Table 6-38. Counts of Material types by Artifact Form from 1977 Quelkata surface collections (Chávez 1978: 50-72).

A relatively large proportion of the points are non-diagnostic using Klink and Aldenderfer's typology. Three points described as "convex base" appear to be type 3D, a style which persists throughout the Archaic. Chávez notes that a large percentage of the artifacts were made of obsidian, although the identification of the Chivay source, 20 km to the south-west and 1000 meters in elevation above Quelkata, would not occur for another 15 years. Chávez attributes the relatively large percentage of obsidian to the many very small flakes of obsidian that were included in his sample. Had his analysis included weight of artifacts, the relative presence of obsidian by weight would have been considerably lower than that of other material types. It is apparent that obsidian was being transported to Quelkata and worked at the rock shelter from one of the Chivay obsidian source exposures in the study region.

Another notable pattern in these data is the lack of non-obsidian projectile points. This pattern is consistent with the predominantly base-notched (and Series 5) nature of this assemblage. However, results from the 2003 fieldwork show that this is anomalous in the region, even for the Terminal Archaic and onwards.

Discussion

Several of the projectile points that were noted on the top level of the rock shelter (in unit A03-988-level I) during a preliminary visit to the shelter in 2001 were gone from the rock shelter by the fall of 2003. The points required more careful study, but unfortunately this did not occur, and it was hoped that the points would have been retrieved during the course of the 2003 fieldwork.

It is notable that, despite the apparent importance of Quelkata in the regional settlement pattern, there were relatively few Archaic projectile points found in this rock shelter. Based on the evidence from Chávez and the 2003 examination of the rock shelter, the only definitive projectile point styles encountered at Quelkata are from the Terminal Archaic and onward. One parsimonious explanation for the lack of earlier projectile point styles is that the location of this rock shelter, only 5 m above the dry season water line, was insufficient to prevent particularly intense flooding during the Terminal Archaic which removed evidence from earlier time periods. Given data encountered at the site, this description of the Quelkata rock shelter perhaps belongs in the Early Agropastoralist discussion rather than the Archaic Foragers section of this dissertation. However, due to the centrality of this rock shelter in the settlement pattern, the shelter was likely a prominent settlement throughout the prehispanic period and thus it was included here.

A02-3 "Mollepunco"

The rock shelter of Mollepunco (aka Mollepunku, Cueva de Pirita) is one of the principal tourist destinations in the Upper Colca area (Cardona Rosas 2002: 143-147;Hostnig 2003: 52;Linares Málaga 1992: 287, 290, 291, 298) and it probably receives visitation by about ten groups of tourists per week during the high season. Formerly known as "Pirita" the shelter was renamed "Mollepunco" by Eloy Lináres Malaga in 1984 (1990;1992). This dry rock shelter at the base of a partly welded tuff outcrop consists of two principal cavities and with flat floors and sloping ceilings, and a dry outdoor activity area. The principal cavity is 7m deep, 4m wide, and 5m tall. The shelter is approximately 100 vertical meters above the Pulpera valley floor and it is adjacent to a small perennial stream. The shelter features pictographs and petroglyphs of camelid, bird, and humanoid figures that Augusto Cardona (2002: 143-147) argues are significant because they show the transition from pictographs to petroglyph techniques, and the art is believed to have been executed by herders and is therefore no older than 3000 BCE. The art has been interpreted as dating to relatively late periods because plump camelid figures are often shown in herds, and one solitary camelid has what appears to be a rope around its neck. The shelter was excavated by Linares (1992) and despite the gate blocking the entrance of one sector, it appears that the shelter was significantly looted. An open burial chamber probably dating to the LIP is evident high in the southern end of the rock shelter.

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Figure6-33. Cueva de Mollepunco (A02-3).

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Figure 6-34. Petroglyph of camelid on wall of Mollepunco.

Lithic debris is predominantly chert but a significant portion of the flaked material is obsidian. Bone and LIP ceramics are also evident at the site, perhaps resulting, in part, from the looted burial. Given the heavily visited and previously collected nature of this site surface the 2003 Upper Colca project field crew did not attempt a systematic recording of surface artifacts.

A03-1074 "Pokallacta"

This is a small, sheltered site that has evidence of occupations in both the Archaic Foragers period and subsequent times. The site is immediately to the west of a steep tuff outcrop approximately 100m high. The site is in the shadow much of the day, but it is a sheltered location that is protected and yet offers large views of the river valley.

The rock shelters are fronted by a flat area that today is a corral. This flat activity area is mapped as two Structure Loci though they are essentially one terrace. The two loci delimit the artifact spill zone for each respective rock shelter and each structure locus was assigned the same ArchID number as the rock shelter above it.

ArchID

SiteID

FileType

Description

Area (m2)

1074

1074

Site_a

"Pokallacta"

4,342.7

1075

1074

Struct_a

Southwest shelter

63

1076

1074

Struct_a

Northeast shelter

45

Table 6-39. Loci in Pokallacta [A03-1074].

ArchID

Description

Height

Depth

Width

Height

At Back

1075

Residential, pastoral

2.5

9

10

1.2

1076

Residential

2.2

6

5.3

0.9

Table 6-40. Rock shelters at Pokallacta [A3-1074], dimensions in meters.

ArchID

Index

Material Type

Form

Type

Temporal

1074

1

Obsidian

Proj Point Broken

5d

TA - LH

1074

2

Obsidian

Biface Broken

n/a

1074

3

Obsidian

Proj Point Broken

5a

Term Archaic

1074

4

Volcanics

Biface Broken

n/a

1075

1

Chalcedony

Proj Point

5

TA - LH

1076

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

5b

TA - MH

1078

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

2a

Early - Middle Archaic

1080

1

Obsidian

Proj Point

3d

Archaic

Table 6-41. Selected Lithics from Pokallacta [A03-1074].

The bifacially flaked items are largely obsidian but notably the bulk of the grab sample of unmodified flakes was of chert and chalcedony. This reflects the location of the site on the north side of the Río Llapa, and is consistent with a raw material use pattern observed elsewhere on the survey.

A03-1075

This rock shelter has a very thick dung cap and it is difficult to see the ground. The slanting roof and open west side provides a large but only partly sheltered area. It appears that a protective wall was constructed on the west side in the past.

A03-1076

This rock shelter is the more protective residential shelter of the two, offering a view of the river valley and the surrounding terraces.

Site Type: Small logistical site / hunting blind

Given the weak evidence of Archaic occupation in the Block 3 area, traces of early logistical sites and hunting blinds were difficult to discern from the well-distributed pastoral period evidence. As described above, archaeological sites were judged to contain pre-pastoral components belonging to logistical sites and hunting blinds when assemblages were of low diversity and long term site occupation evidence was slight. Often such sites are hard to definitely characterize as "archaic logistical sites" because the sites were found in places that appeared to be either predominantly later occupation period, or they were situated in were from ridgelines and other relatively exposed, steep, and waterless locations that were judged to be relatively unsuitable for long-term residential occupation.

A number of sites fall into the category of logistical sites and hunting blinds because it is essentially a catch-all category of potential pre-pastoral behaviors that do not contain definitive evidence for later occupation, such as ceramics. However, during the wet-season herders in the Upper Colca area return to the valleys (Markowitz 1992) and the slopes above the city of Callalli become suitable grazing land. A herder tending the flock high on the slopes might knap stone and create an aceramic site far from pastoral facilities or bofedales. Thus, it is difficult to conclusively say that the Block 3 aceramic sites (shown in Figure 6-25) predate the Terminal Archaic; the aceramic distribution is presented here conditionally.

Sitem

Sites

Block 3m

Block 3s

Block3 m - Sitem

Altitude (masl)

3947.2

83.7

3984.5

87.45

+37.3

Slope (degrees)

9.8

5.5

12.3

8.5

-2.5

Aspect (degrees)

SE

SE

SW

SE

NE

Visibility/Exposure

38.3

24.2

39.1

23.4

+.8

Dist. to Bofedal (m)

1420

600

1024.8

567.9

-395.2

Table 6-42. Environmental characteristics of aceramic sites.

An exploration of the environmental circumstances of these aceramic sites shows that the sites are found in higher altitude areas, relative to the terrain in Block 3, and the distribution are on relatively steep slopes for site locations. The highly variable aspect measure is not particularly informative, though it shows a slight tendency towards south-east exposures in a block that trends to the south-west. These sites are found in relatively exposed, high visibility areas, and they tend to be farther than average from bofedales, though on the whole bofedales are not widespread in Block 3. Examples of such sites would include a few that contain diagnostic pre-pastoral Archaic projectile points, but also appear to contain evidence of later occupations.

A03-599 "Callalli 11"

This site is on the east edge of Callalli just beyond a quebrada. A relatively dense scatter of flaked stone and projectile points from two Archaic styles and two later (Type 5) styles were found here, but the artifacts were not sufficiently dense to merit mapping as a low density lithic locus. The site is heavily disturbed by the construction of two roads on either side of it: the modern Callalli access road to the north and a narrow, steep road accessing the soccer field to the west and south of the site.

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Figure 6-35. View westward from "Callalli 11" across quebrada shows the eastern edge of Callalli.

This deflated terrace edge area contained flakes approximately one half chert and one half obsidian by count, and 1/4 of the obsidian was cortical. A ground andesite hammerstone weighing 294 g and stained with ochre was also found here. This open air site area offers partial shelter in the form of the quebrada and associated lower terraces that are now destroyed by road construction. The quebrada probably contained water for part of the year.

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Figure 6-36. Callalli 11 [A03-599] on terrace on the east edge of the town ofCallalli.

A03-785 "Anccasuyo"

Another possible logistical site was found away from the principal river channel in the area of the colonial site of Anccasuyo. A single type 1A (Early Archaic) or 2C (Middle Archaic) projectile point of chalcedony, broken at both ends, was found here. The temporal assignment is ambiguous because of the broken base. This location is adjacent to a small tributary to the Río Llapa and where an outcrop of tuff creates a small pool that has been developed into a stock pond.

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Figure 6-37. Chalcedony projectile point [A03-790] from Anccasuyo [A03-785].

There were two obsidian flakes here, and five non-obsidian flakes. While the Archaic evidence from this site is small, a single point (that could have been scavenged from elsewhere by the colonial occupants), if the context is intact it represents a kind of peripheral, hidden habitation that one might expect to complement the larger residential bases elsewhere in the valley.

A03-675 "Taukamayo" (A02-26)

This area meets the criteria for a possible short term camp or logistical camp during the Archaic Foragers period. A red chert foliate projectile point was found just outside of the principal site of Taukamayo, a site that will be discussed in detail below. The chert point is probably type 3D (incomplete scar coverage) and it is of a style that is only diagnostic to the preceramic period. This location is a bench terrace that is relatively exposed topographically but, as with site A03-599 Callalli-11 there are opportunities for shelter nearby. This site is classified here this as a possible logistical camp during the Archaic because the immediate occupation appears relatively small and exposed for a residential base, but the evidence is conflated with quantities of flaked stone and pottery from later occupations. The site is positioned at the base of a principal access trail to the high country to the south, and close to the biggest river confluence in the region. In other words, there is not a lot of evidence of long term occupation or diversity of activities during the pre-pastoralist period at this site, but the location appears to be positioned strategically with respect to local travel corridors and the monitoring of the river confluence, and the site thus appears to have more than merely a chert procurement location.

Site Type: Chert provisioning site

A final site type category to be considered in this section is that of Archaic Period Block 3 provisioning and initial reduction sites. A relatively large number of sites are found on the lower terraces of major watercourses. The sites can be characterized as exposed, open air sites featuring cortical reduction debris where the majority of material is chert or chalcedony, and the tools are discarded bifacial tools and points. The process appears to have consisted of obtaining chert cobbles from the river bed during low water seasons and opening the cobbles in the riverbed to evaluate the knapping quality of the material. Some percentage of cobbles deemed suitable for further reduction were then transported to the terrace above, where knapping occurred. Sites rich in chert were not exclusively encountered on these river bank areas, but these production sites were abundant in cortical material and the mean flake sizes were relatively large.

These kinds of sites were encountered most frequently on the very edges of terraces but this was perhaps due in part to the greater visibility from erosion along the terrace margins. The sites are otherwise exposed and appear to have been an unlikely place for residential occupation. The profiles of cut banks were investigated at some of these sites and stratified deposits were rarely observed eroding from the cutbanks. The 2003 season survey did not encounter chert raw material in its original geological context, it was only found in the bed of streams in the Block 3 area. As a consequence, it appears that most of the chert artifacts recovered during the 2003 season were probably knapped along these river terrace margins, and it is difficult to assign a time period to these early production sites. There was no strong patterning with the temporally diagnostic point styles and the material types used in Block 3 during the Archaic Foragers period. Points were made from chert and obsidian in Block 3 throughout the Archaic and obsidian points were frequently found on river terrace margins surrounded by chert knapping debris.

A03-806: Sullullumba

A good example of a river terrace provisioning site with evidence of multiple Archaic Period occupations is "Sullullumba" [A03-806]. This site was the only site with purely Archaic occupations in Block 3. It is located up the Colca river from the confluence at Sibayo, and is therefore one of the areas furthest in the study area from the Chivay obsidian source. The site is located on a pronounced terrace edge on the inside bank of a broad bend in the Colca river. Under modern conditions, the area is exposed both to valley winds and by the fact that it lies on the edge of a 40 m steep downslope to the annual high water mark in the river channel.

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Figure 6-38. Map of the Sullullumba [A03-806], an Archaic Foragers site showing lithic loci on terrace edge 40m above the annual flood line. Image courtsey of Quickbird DG / Google.

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Figure 6-39. Sullullumba [A03-806] along terrace edge above the upper Río Colca. Yellow notebook and scale bar are visible in the center-rear of photo.

ArchID

SiteID

FileType

Description

Area (m2)

806

806

Site_a

Sullullumba

366.6

807

806

Lithic_a

Medium Dens, 10 Obs

169.6

808

806

Lithic_a

High Dens, 10 Obs

21.3

Table 6-43. Loci at Sullullumba [A03-806].

Artifact analysis from Sullullumba

As one of the only single component Archaic Forager sites, seventy-four artifacts collections from this site were given thorough attention in lab analysis. The items below indicate the kind of lithic reduction that occurred on river terraces some distance from the Chivay source.

Obsidian

Obsidian material consisted of two types: clear and clear-banded flakes with no heterogeneities, and grey and black shaded obsidian with heterogeneities. Two broken projectile points and one broken biface were made from obsidian that is presumably of Chivay type material. A single flake of clear obsidian was found highly rotated and with 20% dorsal cortex, placing it at a mid-stage reduction. This obsidian flake was perhaps struck from the biface or the projectile point collected from this site.

Chert and Chalcedony

No pattern was discerned in the color of chert used at Sullullumba, but there was a relatively high percentage of chert and chalcedony in the surface assemblage. From the collection of 74 artifacts from the site, 50% were made of chert or chalcedony. Sixty-five percent of the chert showed signs of heat treating. Interestingly, about half of the chert flakes showed signs of rotation indicating that the potential of chert cores was maximized despite the probable availability of chert in the Colca river. None of the flakes, however, were bifacial thinning flakes and only six flakes had more than 20% cortex. No correlation was noted between (1) the flakes with high rotation index and (2) heat treatment or chert color. Thus, it appears that chert was being procured and preforms were being produced but the final, thinning stages of point production were not occurring at this site or these smaller flakes were not recovered from the surface context.

A number of interesting projectile points were collected here that include a type 4f (Terminal Archaic) point made from clear banded Ob1 obsidian that includes pressure flaking around the haft Figure 6-40. Another point is a likely type 3b (Middle Archaic) point made from red chert with several spines on the haft margin.

(a)/misc/image070.jpg

(b)/misc/image071.jpg

Figure 6-40. Projectile points from Sullullumba [A03-806]. These include (a) an obsidian Ob1 4F (Terminal Archaic) point [A03-809.1] and (b) and the base of a probable 3b (Middle Archaic) chert point with shoulder spines [A03-810.2].

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Figure 6-41. The high density lithic locus A03-808 consisted of aphanytic volcanics and chert.

Complete flakes from this site show highly variable attributes that result from a complete reduction sequence having occurred in the area. A high density locus of flakes made of fine-grained volcanics, chert flakes, and chert heat-shatter [A03-808] perhaps result from a single knapping event. In sum, this site presents evidence of Archaic Period open-air activities a greater distance away from the influence of the Chivay source.

A03-32 "Ichocollo" site cluster in Block 6

Approximately 10 km down stream from Block 3 a cluster of open-air sites along a tributary to the Colca was encountered in a smaller survey area called block 6. This block contains a large fraction of diagnostic Archaic projectile points along with ceramics and projectile points dating to the later Prehispanic period. In the modern geography of the region Block 6 lies immediately above the portion of the Colca valley with intensive agriculture. The Río Challacone descends from the north-east flanks of the glaciated Nevado Mismi (5556 masl) on the north side of the Colca valley, while the Ichocollo drains the south side of Cerro Chungara (5286 masl), a peak that was probably glaciated on its southern flank approximately in the same period of time as the Chivay obsidian source area contained glaciers.

SiteID

FileType

Description

Area (m2)

22

Site_a

"Ichocollo 3"

400.1

29

Site_a

"Ichocollo 4"

36.4

32

Site_a

"Ichocollo 5"

527.5

44

Site_a

"Ichocollo 6"

729.9

61

Site_a

"Ichocollo 7"

1375.5

Table 6-44. Site sizes in Ichocollo [A03-32].

This glaciation may have provided steady water to residents along the eastern tributary stream named Ichocollo. Today, the western of the two, the Challacone drainage, appears to be the larger stream channel and is more scoured out (see geology map in Figure 4-15), a feature perhaps related to the geologically recent large mudslide visible in the geology map as "Ladera Tinday" with the Qr-desymbology.

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Figure 6-42. Block 6 Challacone - Ichocollo overview map

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Figure 6-43. Ichocollo complex along Quebrada Ichocollo.

Artifacts from Ichocollo complex

Several clusters of lithics and ceramics were identified and divided into sites in this confluence area between the two drainages. The greatest density of artifacts were found on the west bank of Quebrada Ichocollo between the two streams, in an area that is relatively low lying compared to other creek banks in the zone. The area was occupied in numerous episodes in prehistory, as is evident in the diagnostic artifacts that belong to styles spanning all time periods from the Early Archaic to the Inka period. There are a number of environmental characteristics that would suggest that this area would be reused frequently in prehistory. On a local scale, the position of these sites between the two creeks perhaps provided the residents with greater opportunities in both water sources and in lithic raw materials, as cobbles occur in the creek beds. In terms of the position of this survey block in the valley, as was noted previously, the Challacone drainage is at nearly 4000 masl but it is geographically only 3 km to the east of Tuti zone that includes the warmer reaches of the Colca valley below 3900 masl and the beginning of intensive agriculture in modern landuse patterns.

A number of chert and chalcedony nodules were observed in the Ichocollo streambed and the chert was predominantly red in color and was a consistent, homogeneous material with moderately good fracture characteristics. The predominantly red-orange chert nodules in the river are evident in material used for the bifacially flaked lithics found in this site cluster, and 30 of these bifacial tools showed signs of heat treating. Relatively few of the artifacts of any material type, including chert, contained exposed cortex. One chert core had 3 rotations, and chert flakes were predominantly in advanced stages of reduction. Obsidian was of both grey and clear varieties and 27% of the obsidian in the collections had heterogeneities.

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Figure 6-44. Photo looking northwest across Ichocollo creek in the foreground, the site cluster that includes "Ichocollo" [A03-32], and Challacone creek below the structure in the background.

Biface

Retouched Flake

Proj Pt

Core

Total

Obsidian

14

2

5

21

Volcanics

3

1

2

6

Chalcedony

1

1

3

5

Chert

10

5

1

1

17

Quartzite

3

3

Total

31

9

11

1

53

Table 6-45. Bifacially Flaked Lithics from Ichocollo by Material Type

Length (mm)

Total

15-20

20-25

25-30

30-35

35-40

40-45

45-50

>50

Obsidian

4

8

3

3

1

1

20

Volcanics

1

1

1

3

Chalcedony

1

2

1

1

5

Chert

1

1

3

3

2

5

15

Quartzite

2

1

3

Total

4

10

5

6

4

7

4

6

46

Table 6-46. Bifacial Lithics at Ichocollo showing Counts of Material Types by Length

An examination of lengths of bifacially-flaked artifacts from the Ichocollo area by material type shows that the immediately-available chert and chalcedony materials are found in bifaces in a range of sizes. Together with the lack of high rates of cortex, these data suggest that the Ichocollo site cluster is associated predominantly with middle-stage reduction. Potentially, decortication occurred in or near the stream bed, while middle and more advanced reduction occurred closer to the residential sites.

Block 3 Archaic Period discussion

The evidence reviewed here has shown that the pre-pastoral Archaic occupation of the Block 3 survey area was light and appears to have consisted of many relatively shortterm occupations. The Archaic Forager period in this region perhaps involved passing through through the river valley while traveling between the puna and the lower elevation Colca valley.

Based on this appraisal of modern resource distributions, the Block 3 section of the landscape presents relatively few opportunities for foragers that are not available in greater abundance elsewhere in the region. Hunting opportunities were likely to have been good in the smaller stream channels and atop the transversal lava flows and the tuff outcrops, but the Block 3 area falls between two rich areas that probably had greater natural abundance: the rich, rain-fed grasses of the puna above, and the lower elevation vegetative productivity of the main Colca valley where berries and herbs probably became available. Gathering opportunities may have been more abundant in the lower elevation parts of the Colca valley downstream, while the economic focus in the puna would have been on hunting.

Problems in isolating Early Agropastoralist sites

As was mentioned in the discussion of the pre-pastoralist Archaic occupation of Block 1, nearly all sites of significant size were multicomponent sites, and the difficult in differentiating components by time period is severe. The strongly pastoralist occupation will be described here, as well as the intensification on obsidian procurement in the Maymeja area that appears to have occurred with the onset of pastoral lifeway in the Terminal Archaic. Some of these sites discussed here may, in fact, date to later pastoralist periods but if the site does not have ceramics diagnostic to later periods, then it was not possible to differentiate the later occupation from mere surface artifacts. Architectural remains, such as chulpas, also serve to differentiate some Early Agropastoral from Late Prehispanic (particularly LIP and LH) occupations.

The problems associated with differentiating the Early Agropastoralist component in the study area can be characterized as follows.

(1) Persistence of pastoral economy. Areas with rich pasture have been consistently occupied since the early pastoral period until modern times, and in many cases the pasture has been enlarged through landscape modification such as expanded irrigation to the margins of bofedales.

(2) Projectile points. The projectile point typology proved to be very useful during the earlier Archaic Foragers period, but the typology is largely non-diagnostic to time period from the Terminal Archaic onward (Series 5 types).

(3) Ceramics. Formative Period ceramics are poorly defined in the Arequipa highlands and this limits the ability of archaeologists to differentiate Formative wares from utilitarian wares from later periods. Furthermore, utilitarian wares may be encountered more frequently at remote pastoral bases.

(4) Architecture. The defining features of pastoral settlement in the region, estancias and corrals, are generally not diagnostic to time period. Architectural features specific to the Collagua during the LIP, such as square structures with round corners and tall narrow doorways did become established in the main Colca valley, but the pastoral structures encountered in the course of this research showed no evidence of this kind of architecture.

6.4. Survey Results: Early Agropastoralists Period (3300BCE - AD400)

This temporal period covers the calendar years 3300 BCE through AD400, incorporating a time that includes dramatic changes in the region from the Terminal Archaic through the Late Formative following the Titicaca Basin chronology. As was described in Chapter 3, during this time period the sweeping changes that occurred in the larger region are linked at the Chivay obsidian source through evidence of intensification of obsidian production, the establishment of regular llama caravan traffic linking far-flung parts of the south-central Andean highlands, and a dynamic political environment in the Titicaca Basin consumption zone that appears to have influenced behavior at the source.

In the Terminal Archaic, distinctive economic changes that were accompanied by social and political developments were brought about in a broad suite of transformations that appear to have been co-evolutionary. Briefly, these changes began with transitional or low-level food production (Smith 2001) in the form of animal husbandry and a greater reliance on seed-plants. These changes were also associated with greater evidence of sedentism (Aldenderfer 1998;Craig 2005) and these settlements were linked through expanding interregional networks that appear to have interfaced through regular llama caravan transport (Browman 1981;Dillehay and Nuñez 1988). By the end of the phase described here as "Early Agro-Pastoralists" a number of regional centers in the Lake Titicaca region emerged during the Late Formative (Stanish 2003: 137-164) that were controlled by a socio-political elite in a socially complex, ranked society. The influence of these powerful political and religious elite were most evident at the primate centers of Late Formative Tiwanaku and Pukara, centers that grew in influence through, some have argued, the harnessing of labor to produce food, build monuments, and control interregional exchange.

In this research, features used to differentiate the Early Agropastoralists period occupations from the preceding Archaic Foragers and from the later Late Prehispanic periods are comprised by evidence from artifactual data and settlement pattern data. With the beginning of the Early Agropastoralists period one can expect the reliance on herding in the Upper Colca to have changed the settlement pattern in the direction of areas that are suitable for herding, in particular reliable water sources and bofedales for alpacas. The Series 1-4 projectile points (except 4c and 4e) are diagnostic to the Archaic Foragers period and so components associated these projectile points are therefore pre-pastoralist by the definition used here. A ceramics style termed "Chiquero" is thought to be diagnostic to the Formative Period based on surface distributions in the main Colca valley (Wernke 2003), but in the course of the 2003 Upper Colca fieldwork, ceramics in the style similar to Chiquero persisted into Middle Horizon period strata in one test unit in Block 3, suggesting that this ceramic style persisted in use in the higher altitude regions of the Colca. Thus, the presence of sand-tempered, unburnished ceramics can be used to differentiate the Early Agropastoralists period from the preceding preceramic time period, but not the Middle Horizon end of the Early Agropastoralists period in the Upper Colca. The end of the Early Agropastoralists period with the onset of the Titicaca Basin Tiwanaku period (AD 400) is more difficult to differentiate because the pastoral economic basis of the periods in the Upper Colca are not significantly transformed, and therefore the settlement pattern may be largely unchanged.

Diagnostic ceramics of the Middle Horizon, Late Intermediate Period, and Late Horizon have been described comprehensively by Wernke (2003) and therefore the presence of these ceramics is one way to differentiate certain components as "Late Prehispanic".

Based on the site classifications used for the pre-pastoralist Archaic, the Early Agropastoralist sites in the Upper Colca are considered here in terms of (1) residential bases, (2) logistical camps, and (3) isolates. These site groupings have analogs in the settlement pattern of modern pastoralists, where residential bases consist in distributed estanciasof varying sizes with adjacent grazing areas where permanent or seasonal residence is established, and logistical camps or "herding posts" that consist of regular travel stops during travel between estancias and other settlements (Nielsen 2001: 193-196;Tomka 2001). These types correspond with "main residences" and "herding posts" described with archaeological correlates by Nielsen (2000: 478-482).

Type

Description

Expectations

Residential Base

Long term occupation or regular reoccupation by several adults and sometimes children. Corrals with soil of compacted dung.

Formalized use of space apparent in task areas and artifact distributions.

Regularly distributed across land with available grazing areas and a reliable water source.

Variety early vessel forms, including large cooking vessels. Possible correlation between low diversity in lithic raw material types and long term occupation due to relatively low mobility. Site maintenance activities (cleaning, dumping) and designated activity areas expected.

Logistical Camp

Short term but regular reoccupation by special task groups. Smaller and more uniform site characteristics.

Few large vessels, possible caching of implements for reuse. Relatively high assemblage diversity in both lithic types and ceramic pastes. Less evidence of site maintenance due to multiple short-term occupations.

Herding shelter

Small occupation for night or day use with windbreak and view of grazing areas.

Windbreak with view, possible animal bone and some lithic debris, possible hearth. No corral necessary for short occupations.

Table 6-47. Classifications for Early Agropastoralist components of sites

Criteria used for identifying pastoral camps were available in the course of this study (Figure 6-48). Unlike the Upper Colca area, some of the ethnoarchaeological data used for constructing these categories come from regions, like eastern slopes of the Andes in Bolivia (Nielsen 2000: 480-483), that had low site reoccupation and spatial redundancy due to an abundance of suitable pastoral camp areas. Ethnoarchaeological evidence suggests that short-term herding posts with little site structure but many reoccupation episodes will often contain many hearths with associated overlapping middens that result from groups moving the hearth facilities to avoid debris from earlier occupants (Nielsen 2000: 480-483).

Pastoral bases and herding posts are characterized by extensive but shallow refuse discard. Bases may contain greater density contrasts in refuse discard because of longer term occupation and site maintenance activity, and areas around rich resource patches are likely to contain "large and dense archaeological sites resulting from multiple, non-contemporaneous, partially overlapping, and perhaps functionally diverse occupations" (Nielsen 2000: 482-483). Short term caravan stops do not necessarily contain corrals, as camelids do not require corralling every night.

Nielsen (2000) observes that short term herding posts (logistical camps in the typology used here) and shelters appear to prioritize the following features, beginning with the well-being of the caravan animals:

  1. Grazing opportunities.
  2. Water for the herd.
  3. Shelter from the wind.
  4. Other human concerns such as hunting opportunities and proximity to the residences of exchange partners.

Herders will take advantage of existing structures, such as wind breaks and sometimes existing hearths, but they virtually never construct new features in their short term occupation of overnight camps (Nielsen 2000: 452).

6.4.1. Block 1 - Source

The Early Agropastoralist period in the Maymeja area of the Chivay source appears to reflect to major foci of economic interest in the area: (1) obsidian intensification, and (2) the exploitation of the rich pasture from the bofedal that lies in the western half of Maymeja. The strongest manifestation of settlement redundancy in the Maymeja area was at a handful of residential bases that were utilized by pastoralists over the millennia.

The most telling patterns in lithic production evidence come from contexts that differ from the expectations derived from purely pastoralist settlement patterns. For example, there is evidence of substantial settlement in an area with an obsidian workshop that is relatively unused today by the herder that dwells in Maymeja with over 200 head of alpaca. One explanation for this pattern is that the earlier settlement pattern was the result of obsidian procurement and production occurring at the quarry pit on the south side of Maymeja. That is, pastoral land use patterns are largely redundant in the region since approximately 3300 BC, but despite this redundancy there was variation from the purely pastoral pattern that suggests a Formative Period economic focus on obsidian production.

Block 1 Obsidian procurement features

One of the biggest challenges of working at the Chivay source during the 2003 season was evaluating the evidence for the incentives that drove ancient people to excavate a quarry pit to acquire larger nodules of obsidian, and the evidence for who was responsible for the quarrying work. Presumably, the earliest visitors to the Chivay source had the first pick of the largest and most homogeneous nodules, but over the millennia the source would be relatively depleted as compared with the initial abundance during early human visitation sometime in the Early Holocene. A quarry pit [Q02-2] that was encountered in the south-east quarter of Maymeja is evidence that investing labor in excavating for obsidian was indeed worthwhile.

At some sources, for example in the upper reaches of the Alca source as described by Rademaker (2005, pers. comm.) large blocks of obsidian of variable quality are found littering the surface. At lower elevations at the Alca source, and closer to large settlements, small cavities and tunnels were excavated to retrieve obsidian (Jennings and Glascock 2002).

Q02-2 "Quarry Pit"

The upper area of Maymeja, as well as the eastern flanks of Cerro Hornillo, are blanketed with small fragments of obsidian that appear as lag gravels among the tephra soils of the area (Section 4.5.1). In particular, flows and large nodules of obsidian are exposed through erosion in some areas, which suggests that underneath the tephra are larger nodules, but one has to excavate for them. On the north side of Maymeja, in an area heavily eroded by glaciers, a flow of obsidian [Q02-1] was observed but it contained vertical, subparallel fractures and was generally not suitable for tool production.

At the same altitude as this natural flow, but 700m to the south and across several moraines is a quarry pit [Q02-2] located in an area where the ashy soil was particularly light-colored. Similar open-air obsidian quarries have been described in central Mexico as "doughnut quarries" (Healan 1997) and "extracción a cielo abierto" (Darras 1999: 80-84). See Section 7.4.1 for further details on this quarry pit.

The coordinates of the Q2-2 pit are 71.5355° S, 15.6423° W (WGS84 datum), and it lies at 4972 masl. Around this quarry pit many small obsidian nodules in a depression were encountered that were typically < 5cm in size, but a few were closer to 15cm on a side. There is a smaller mound of sandy soil and small fragments of obsidian inside the larger quarry pit, suggesting that someone has attempted to further excavate the quarry pit in the more recent past.

/misc/image075.jpg

Figure 6-45. Testing at Quarry Pit Q02-2 with 1x1 test unit Q02-2u3. Snow remains in the pit.

During the 2003 field season a test unit was placed in the debris pile immediately downslope of this quarry pit. The quarry pit and the test unit results are described in more detail in Section 7.4.1 and a brief discussion of ancient quarrying methods can be found in Section 8.3.2.

A03-268 "Camino Hornillo"

Departing from the quarry, a prehispanic road was identified that is 3-4m wide and is cleared of all but the largest rocks. This road [A03-268] departs the Maymeja area towards the south, following the route with the lowest gradient out of the volcanic depression, and avoiding difficult talus areas. As the road is defined by being swept free of rocks, the road is difficult to follow where it enters areas consisting only of sandy soil with no rocks to define its edges. In 2003 two sections of this road were mapped for a total of 3 km, and based on observations it can be described as of the " Cleared Road type: … systematically cleared of all stones or other debris" (Beck 1991: 75-76). While the soft pads of camelid feet negotiate rocky terrain with relative agility, loaded caravan animals generally travel on cleared roads and trails. Nielsen describes caravan routes in the open altiplano as "wide (4-10 m), straight, and free of vegetation, but lack[ing in] any improvement" (Nielsen 2000: 447). By these criteria, the route encountered at the Chivay source is relatively narrow, but it is roughly twice the width of a single-file path.

/Figs_Ch6/B1_EarlyPast/Block1_a03268.jpg

Figure 6-46. A03-269 and A03-734 "Camino Hornillo" and modern trail system.

No ceramics or architectural features were found in association with this road, and the only temporally diagnostic artifact identified was an obsidian type 4f projectile point diagnostic to the latter part of the Late Archaic and the Terminal Archaic. The construction of the swept road is being interpreted here as Terminal Archaic - Early Formative in age because it is associated with a workshop that contained radiocarbon dating to that time, and this date is further supported by the presence of the Terminal Archaic projectile point along the route.

At 4 km from the quarry pit, the southern segment [A03-768] of Camino Hornillo meets the Escalera route, a large trail that appears to have been a major thoroughfare for pack trains climbing steeply out of the Colca Valley to the puna and off towards the East-South-East (the direction of Lake Titicaca). A relatively large cairn or apachetastands on top of a boulder just northwest of this significant intersection, probably a guidepost marker in an otherwise open and featureless expanse.

/misc/image076.jpg

Figure 6-47. Apacheta (cairn) close to junction of the Escalera route with Cerro Hornillo.

While there were no artifacts associated with this cairn to facilitate dating its construction, the practice of contributing stones to cairns by passersby suggests that large cairn have some antiquity (Nielsen 2000: 447-448, 489). These features are associated with ritual activity in a variety of cultures worldwide including the North African Twareg (Rennell 1966 [1926]: 293), Tibetans (Trinkler 1931: 72), and other Himalayan highland groups (Valli and Summers 1994: 11). While cairns are abundant on an adjacent pass at Patapampa along the principal Arequipa highway to the Colca, those cairns have become a focus for tourist activity and many are the result of modern construction by passing tourists.

Today, the route of the modern Chivay - Arequipa highway has shifted traffic to Patapampa and around south side of Cerro Huarancante, and as a consequence these more ancient travel routes long used by pack animals, see little modern use except by local herders.

Interestingly, Camino Hornillo crosses the Escalera route and continues with the same width and definition in the direction of Nevado Huarancante to the south, as if the role of Camino Hornillo was more than simply a spur on the larger trail network in the direction of the Chivay obsidian source. Beyond the Lecceta-Escalera pass area, the Camino Hornillo [A03-734] begins climbing a hill and disappears again into sandy soil. Due to time constraints the 2003 field season team was not able continue following this road, but the route suggests that there was an objective in the southerly direction beyond the Escalera thoroughfare.

(a)/misc/image077.jpg (b)/misc/image078.jpg

Figure 6-48. Camino Hornillo showing (a) A03-268 and (b) A03-734 segments. Photos were digitally modified to highlight the route in red.

The Quebrada Escalera route (in the southwest portion of Figure 6-46), which is now primarily a narrow footpath, seems to have had varying degrees of historical importance as access route in and out of the Colca. As reviewed in Section 3.2, the ethnographic accounts of caravans arriving into the Colca from the eastern puna are numerous (Browman 1990: 404,416-414;Casaverde Rojas 1977;Flores Ochoa 1968: 107-137). These caravans, by necessity, would have had to take one of the relatively steep routes that go to the north or the south of Nevado Huarancante. The route to the south of the mountain, which is the route taken by the modern highway to Arequipa (constructed in 1947 by Conscripcíon Vial), has steep pitches that would have presented obstacles to caravan transport as does the Quebrada Escalera route. Guillet (1992: 27-28) describes the historical importance of the construction of railroad station at Sumbay in Pampa de Cañagua, because with the railroad travel to the city of Arequipa by mule was reduced from being a one week journey to being a 2.5 day trip. One well-established route between Sumbay and Chivay passed through the Lecceta-Escalera area as it skirted north of Nevado Huarancante and descended Quebrada Escalera into the Colca. In sum, two faint segments are apparent of a road referred to here as "Camino Hornillo" that depart the quarry pit [q02-2] towards the south and arrive at the major travel route represented by the Escalera, but then the route continues southward in the direction of Huarancante. Further study of this road is needed.

Block 1 Reduction and projectile points in the Early Agropastoral period

Consumption patterns in the south central Andes indicate that projectile points are the most frequent artifact type for obsidian, a pattern that becomes particularly strong with Series 5 projectile point production sometime after the onset of the Terminal Archaic circa 3300 BCE An important question in this research is, therefore, "in what form was obsidian leaving the Maymeja zone during a particular time period?"

Part of this question is answered simply by looking at the 2003 projectile point inventory: obsidian Series 5 points are actually relatively scarce in the Maymeja area, and flakes that approach Series 5 projectiles in shape, are not especially common in the collections either (see Table 6-15, above). As will be suggested by the Maymeja excavation data in Section 7.4, distinct groupings of cores and flakes discarded at the workshop suggest that reduction was following a few discrete pathways that might indicate that two trajectories, both the flake-as-core and the flake directly to implement, reduction strategies were occurring at the Chivay source.

Block 1 Early Agropastoralist Settlement pattern

A primary goal of modern pastoralists residing in Maymeja is to guard their flock both during daytime grazing and during the night when rustlers, foxes, and, formerly, mountain lions, are liable to attack the herd (T. Valdivia 2003, pers. comm.). It is evident from regional distributions in the Chivay Source area that during the Terminal Archaic and Formative Period there was a combined interest in herd maintenance with obsidian production. A key feature of the Maymeja area is that procuring obsidian from this zone did not require compromising grazing potential for access to obsidian: both appear to have been available on the southern margins of Maymeja.

/Figs_Ch6/B1_EarlyPast/Block1_EarlyPast.jpg

Figure 6-49. Block 1 possible Early Agropastoral settlement pattern with Series 5 projectile points.

Residential bases: Several large sites were identified that have been interpreted as residential bases for herders. These residential bases include corrals, possible remnants of residential structures, and site maintenance activity such as the discard of lithics in discrete areas. These bases represent probable overnight camps.

Open air sites: Small sites, consisting typically of a windbreak and a small obsidian scatter overlooking a bofedal, are distributed throughout the Maymeja zone. These small camps, described here as "open air sites" are probable day-use overlooks for herders.

Rock shelters: A number of small rock shelter sites were also encountered in this area. These are typically very small rock shelters, often no more than a small overhang of a boulder or the edge of a lava flow. The shelters commonly contain a small scatter of obsidian flakes, and sometimes cores, at the dripline of the rock shelter.

Miscellaneous other site types: Other kinds of sites include an obsidian quarry pit [q02-2], and Camino Hornillo [a03-268] which is a route leading to the quarry pit from the south.

A03-126 "Maymeja 1"

On the southern edge of Maymeja a site was located that contained a dense mound of flaked obsidian, an extensive scatter of obsidian, traces of terracing and wall building, but virtually no ceramics. Dates from a 1x1m test unit [Q02-2u3] placed in the obsidian mound (Section 7.4.2) showed that this site was occupied from at least the Terminal Archaic until the end of the Early Formative.

/Figs_Ch6/B1_EarlyPast/Block1_a03126.jpg

Figure 6-50. A03-126 "Maymeja 1" workshop and vicinity.

Maymeja 1 [A03-126] belongs to a complex of features that have been divided into an upper site A03-126, and a lower site A03-275 that has some LIP and LH component. This complex is located on the dry southern margins of the Maymeja area where viscous lavas emanating from the Cerro Hornillo vent slope downwards to the northwest into the depression referred to as Maymeja. Subsequent glaciation polished these lavas into smooth banks with excavated depressions that offer adequate shelter in this exposed region. The shelter and abundant sun in this north-facing zone is compensated for by the mountain winds that blow with regularity in the area.

/misc/image079.jpg

Figure 6-51. View of A03-126 "Maymeja" from north. Terraced area A03-334 on upper level. Test Unit Q02-02 is just right of the orange bucket. Project tents are visible in corral A03-127.

(a)

(a)/misc/image080.jpg

(b)/misc/image081.jpg

Figure 6-52. (a) Workshop area of "Maymeja 1" showing proximity of bofedal, (b) Testing Q02-2U3, with the quarry pit [Q02-2] visible among light ash 600m uphill in the background.

The residential base of A03-126 consists of two principal zones that show human modification: (1) the upper area above the polished lava bluffs visible in Figure 6-51, and (2) a lower zone that abuts the bofedal to the north. As the area is almost devoid of ceramics the primary indicators of occupation are lithic scatters of varying density and with highly eroded walls and terraces. The central greatest concentration of flaked stone is the workshop area labeled as a high density lithic locus [A03-330], shown on Figure 6-50.

Arch_ID

Site_ID

Feature Type

Description1

Description2

Area_m2

126

126

Site

"Mayemeja 1"

Workshop and upper sector

6,007.0

127

126

Structure Locus

Walls

Corral area

130.6

275

275

Site

"Mayemeja 5"

Lower slopes parallel to bofedal

10,401.4

276

275

Structure Locus

Wall bases only

Eroded terraces along lower slope

1,414.2

277

275

Structure Locus

Wall bases only

Eroded terraces along lower slope

978.2

278

275

Structure Locus

Wall bases only

Eroded terraces along lower slope

524.6

279

275

Structure Locus

Wall bases only

Eroded terraces along lower slope

1,234.2

280

275

Structure Locus

Wall bases only

Eroded terraces along lower slope

4,306.6

324

126

Lithic Locus

Medium Density

Concentration in on top of lava outcrop

49.6

325

126

Lithic Locus

High Density

Flakes washing down from structures

12.4

326

126

Lithic Locus

High Density

Concentration in sheltered area

4.5

327

126

Lithic Locus

Medium Density

Expanse of flaked stone

182.4

328

126

Lithic Locus

Low Density

Light scatter coterminous with site bndy

2,942.7

329

126

Lithic Locus

Medium Density

Expanse of flaked stone

940.5

330

126

Lithic Locus

High Density

Workshop mound

292.1

333

126

Lithic Locus

Medium Density

Concentration in sheltered area

15.6

334

126

Structure Locus

Wall bases only

Eroded terraces along lower slope

1,504.4

335

126

Structure Locus

Wall bases only

Base of circular structure

4.3

336

126

Structure Locus

Wall bases only

Base of circular structure

5.2

337

126

Structure Locus

Wall bases only

Base of circular structure

5.5

Table 6-48. Areal features belonging to A03-126 and A03-275 workshop complex.

Spatial features in this area were initially delimited with dGPS and then, during a visit in 2004, the boundaries of the smaller structural features were remapped with a total station.

Terraces and structure bases

At an altitude of nearly 5000 masl in sandy soil, this area is far above the growing zone even for tubers. If these were residential terraces, where were the ceramics? One possible explanation was provided from three14C samples from the workshop test unit [Q02-2u3] that revealed that the workshop occupation belonged to the preceramic and very early ceramic period. It appears that that the dominant component of this site is from prior to the use of ceramics in the area.

The terrace margins are generally highly eroded and ill-defined in places, and the focus in 2003 was therefore on mapping terraced zones as several large polygon areas rather than attempting to map each terrace as a linear feature. The upper terraced area [A03-334] was particularly eroded, but faint traces of intermittent terraces were apparent. The terraces walls, and wall bases that appear to have been small circular structures, are single walled with no mortar. The sole exception was a corner of doubled-walled construction made of ground fieldstone in the lower terraced area [A03-276] where the corner of a structure of cut-stone masonry of possible Late Horizon date was located, a feature that is described later in the Late Prehispanic Block 1 section.

The eroded terraces of A03-275 are generally 20-50cm in height and are constructed with fieldstones of a variety of sizes. Typically, a few large boulders will form the general structure of the terraces, and then small level surfaces would be constructed by building terrace walls of the flat local lava rock. It is difficult to date these constructions but due to the presence of sherds from several Inka plates, and a possible LH feature, these terraces are further discussed in the Late Prehispanic section titled A03-275 "Maymeja 5", along with several photos of these constructions.

In the sector of A03-126, above the bofedal margin, several small circular structures [A03-335] of possible Early Agropastoralist age were identified. These structures consist of circular wall-bases with concentrations of obsidian eroding downslope from the interior area. Two adjacent circular constructions were in the middle of an eroded terrace, but the predominant pattern was for small circular constructions measuring 2-3m in diameter to be built adjacent to rock outcrops that appear to offer protection from the western winds. These small wall-bases were observed along the expansive rock outcrop that extends just south of the bofedal. No hearths or bones were observed in this area, although bone preservation would probably be very poor in this exposed area.

/misc/image082.jpg

Figure 6-53. Base of structure [A03-335] is formed by fifteen large, partially buried stones and measures 2.5m in diameter.

These structures are being interpreted as residential constructions or windbreaks occupied on short term basis by obsidian procurers who were allowing their animals to graze while they quarried and reduced obsidian from the Maymeja area, and perhaps dug the quarry pit Q02-2. Herders would presumably have had sufficient animal hides and woolen textiles to insulate stone walled structures from the penetrating winds.

It is also conceivable that these are bases for large circular LIP chulpas, as the wall bases are sufficiently large. This is unlikely, however, as there were no LIP ceramics in the area, and the obsidian flaking debris eroding downhill strongly suggests that obsidian reduction was occurring inside these circular structures.

Workshop mound

The workshop mound [A03-330] forms the largest and highest density of flaked obsidian observed in the Upper Colca project region. The 1x1m test excavation in this mound (Section 7.4.2) revealed episodes of reduction activity that generated cultural levels with distinctive concentrations of knapping debris associated with early stage reduction. The flake densities attenuate away from the mound center where the test unit was placed, and immediately south-west of the mound a corral is evident that is probably relatively ancient. One possibility is that animals were loaded with obsidian inside the corral subsequent to knapping at the workshop.

A03-209 "Maymeja 7"

Approximately 700m to the south-west of the workshop area another concentration of culturally derived obsidian flakes was encountered, and this concentration was distinct in that it was well-removed from the area with naturally abundant obsidian. A small cavity in a rock face was located with what appeared to be a wall in back and a large obsidian scatter extended down the hill below the wall cavity. The rock cavity may have contained a burial at some point, but the space was empty save for a few LIP sherds. This reduction zone was notably distant from the obsidian source, away from the bofedal, and was uphill and on a relatively steep slope (25º) high above any of the eroded terracing. Given the density of this reduction area, including two high density loci measuring 17m2and 39m2, the best explanation appears to be that this site conforms to the previously observed pattern of obsidian reduction occurring on the western lip of the Maymeja area where the views westward are excellent (see interpretation in Section 8.3.3 ). The mean visibility value for features in Block 1 overall is 18.5, while the visibility value for A03-209 is 31, or 40% higher than the average visibility in Block 1.

/Figs_Ch6/B1_EarlyPast/Block1_a03209.jpg

Figure 6-54. A03-126, 209, 275 Maymeja workshop and vicinity.

A03-201 "Saylluta 2"

This site consists primarily of a medium sized corral built among large colluvial boulders that have descended from the north margins of the Maymeja area. The area is littered with obsidian flakes, and natural and culturally fractured obsidian flakes cover the ground. It is perhaps due to the extensive glaciation in the area that the sandy soils of this corral contain a low density of geologically fractured obsidian flakes.

/misc/image083.jpg

Figure 6-55. View looking south from above at A03-201 "Saylluta" with excavation of test unit Q02-2u1 under way in top center of corral by the orange bucket. Site datum is on top of the large boulder to the south of Q02-2u1 (just above test unit in the photo).

The corral offers excellent protection from the mountain winds that prevail on the southern edge of the Maymeja area, but at the cost of warmth from direct sunlight. In early August the sun would disappear from this area around 4pm. As is visible in Figure 6-55, a wall between 1.5m and 2m in height encircles this corral, and constructed stairs access the corral from the south. A fan of flaked obsidian, bone fragments, and a few unslipped, unpainted pottery fragments extends 20m downslope from the access stairs to the edge of a grassy area that has probably been a bofedal during wetter times.

A test unit [Q02-2u1] was placed on the southern half of this corral, and it revealed a fill of sandy local soil, and perhaps camelid dung, that was used to level out this corral in an otherwise sloping area. A discouraging colonial-style nail was encountered in level 4 of this test unit, suggesting a post-conquest occupation, nevertheless the test unit was excavated to sterile where large, irregular rocks cover the base of the 1x1. No distinctive prehispanic features were identified, and as yet the small pieces of carbon recovered from this test unit have not been analyzed with14C dating.

This corral is a suitable shelter from wind and it is also relatively well hidden and could serve as a refuge as it goes unnoticed among the talus boulders of northern Maymeja. Due to the lack of sunlight during the winter months, and the relative scarcity of water adjacent to A03-201 under current conditions, this location is thermally a less comfortable camp as compared with the sites on the southern edge of Maymeja.

A03-570 "Valdivia 1"

At the lower end of Maymeja, close to where the principal trail arrives in the zone from Chivay, a large obsidian scatter was encountered adjacent to an active estancia owned by Eliseo Vilcahuaman Panibra but occupied by Timoteo Valdivia who was hired to guard the herd. The site of A03-570, defined by a low density scatter of obsidian flakes, occupied the entire east slope of a large breccia promontory that forms one of the distinctive landmarks on the western edge of Maymeja. A relatively large (419m2), medium density scatter [A03-572] is located on the northern end of this area, where the water from the northern half of Maymeja cascades over the breccia layer and descends steeply into Quebrada de los Molinos.

The site of "Valdivia 1" [A03-570] appears to be a prime site for occupation by pastoralists. The excellent views of two of the largest bofedales in the Maymeja area, extensive sun throughout the day, and a position on the lee side of a promontory protecting it from the westerly winds make this place a desirable location for pastoralists in the area. This site, and the adjacent site of A03-190 at the head of the trail from Chivay, belong to a cluster of sites that occupy the steep western margin of the Maymeja area and that provide sweeping views of the Quebrada de los Molinos. This site has a high visibility index, particularly from the lithic locus A03-571, where a visibility index value of 40.6 was calculated that can be compared with a mean visibility index of 18.5 for sites in Block 1. An interpretation of these viewshed values is discussed in Section 8.3.3.

A03-539 "Mamacocha 5" and A03-548 - "Mamacocha 6"

These pastoral bases in the upper end of Quebrada de los Molinos have been considered bases because of the remnants of large corrals found in therein. However, these sites lack temporally diagnostic materials. This area consists of moraines with large lava boulders that have descended from the steep slopes above and offer wind protection as well as a few small rock shelter features.

Blocks 4 and 5 Reconnaissance Areas

The diffused nature of pastoral settlement was evident from the distribution of land use observed in the extensive Blocks 4 and 5 zones. These areas primarily consist of rugged lava terrain that appear desolate in the dry season. In the wet season, however, there are probably adequate grazing opportunities through these areas. By distributing pastoral impacts over the larger landscape during the wet season, the bofedales would be allowed to recover.

/Figs_Ch6/B45_EarlyPast/Block45_EarlyPast.jpg

Figure 6-56. Blocks 4 and 5 showing Series 5 projectile point distribution.

Series 5 projectile points are not exclusive to the Early Agropastoral period, but given the increase in obsidian production during that period, this dataset provides a perspective on this period that is not available for this transitional stage between diagnostic lithic and ceramic technologies. One informative aspect of the Blocks 4 and 5 projectile point distributions is from the types of obsidian in use for projectile point manufacture. Recall that much of the obsidian surface gravels available at around 4975 masl on the eastern flakes of Cerro Hornillo contain deficiencies either because they contain heterogeneities or because they derive from smaller nodules. Projectile points from Blocks 4 and 5 are almost never made from material with heterogeneities.

Proj Points

Ob1

Ob2

Volcanics

Total

5

25

1

1

27

5a

2

   

2

5b

2

   

2

5d

9

   

9

Total

38

1

1

40

Table 6-49. Material types for Series 5 points in Blocks 4 and 5.

This table demonstrates that despite the proximity of many of these sites to Ob2 surface obsidian gravels with heterogeneities, the Ob2 material was almost never used for point production. The obsidian observed on the eastern flanks of Hornillo did not entirely consist of Ob2 material with heterogeneities. In fact, the Q03-3 source south of Hornillo contained nodules measuring 15 cm across free visible heterogeneities. The Q03-3 material, however, did not appear as transparent as the Q02-2 glass from Maymeja.

Discussion

During the Early Agropastoralist period in the obsidian source area observed what appears to be intensive obsidian production in the initial stages of reduction at a workshop 600m downslope from the quarry pit, as well as evidence that suggests that obsidian was being transported away from the Maymeja area as whole nodules.

6.4.2. Block 2 - San Bartolomé

As with the obsidian source area, the economic pattern from the San Bartolomé area is predominantly pastoralist, making it difficult to isolate sites belonging to the Early Agropastoral period from Late Prehispanic and colonial period camelid pastoralist sites. The unslipped, unpainted pottery with a brushed interior resembling the Chiquero type is found in this area, but the pastoral camps are mostly multicomponent such that sherd concentrations on the surface are largely mixed with painted styles, colonial styles and utilitarian modern pottery. The majority of these pastoral sites contain obsidian flakes and virtually all the obsidian is the Ob1 obsidian that derives from the Maymeja area of the source.

It should be noted that hunting opportunities abound in this area, and textured landscape atop the lava flow area of Block 2 is popular with hunters to this day. Herders during the Early Agropastoral period probably supplemented the returns from the herds by hunting viscacha, tarucadeer, and perhaps wild camelids.

/Figs_Ch6/B2_EarlyPast/Block2_EarlyPast.jpg

Figure 6-57. Block 2 - Early Agropastoral occupation.


Evidence from ceramics

While single-component sites are rare in Block 2, most sites conform to a distributed pastoralist settlement pattern, spatial patterning is evident in the distribution of a brushed, unslipped type of pottery in neckless olla forms in Block 2. This pottery type bears resemblance to the Chiquero type proposed for the Formative Period in the main Colca valley by Wernke(2003). However, as will be discussed further, test excavations found pottery with similar characteristics in contexts dated to the 1313±36 B.P. (AA56939; A.D. 650 - 780) in the Block 3 area, suggesting that this pottery style continued to be used in the highland areas. Nevertheless, as shown inFigure 6-57, pastoral sites with wiped and unslipped olla sherds were found in two relatively discrete clusters in the Block 2 survey area. These sherds were found in a large cluster on the north end of the survey, and then none from A03-340 south to A03-442, and a small cluster is found in the southern most group of sites in Block 2. In other words, in the center of the survey was a zone where these pots were not encountered. The spatial patterns associated with the presence of unslipped, unpainted ceramics should not be over-interpreted because undecorated ceramics were not an artifact type that was rigorously sampled in this survey work. Furthermore, a number of small, a-ceramic sites were encountered that had pastoral attributes, such as small corral areas and relatively good access to water, yet no ceramics of any kind were evident. It is difficult to establish the antiquity of such sites, but it is possible they date to earlier stages of the agropastoral economy when ceramics use was .

It is worth noting that there was a strong association observed between high-density lithic loci predominant in obsidian raw material, and sites with this wiped, unslipped pottery type. Of the 22 high density lithic loci, 19 of them (86%) fell in sites that also had the unslipped, possible Formative (Chiquero) pottery in question. Among medium density scatters the pattern was less dominant. Of the 23 medium density lithic loci, 14 (60%) were found in sites with the unslipped pottery. While sites and surface artifacts are highly commingled in this area, these patterns suggest that obsidian production was associated with the pastoralists who made use of the wiped, unslipped olla design. Due to the limited sampling of unslipped ceramics, the associations between this pottery type and obsidian reduction are not certain.

Pastoral site classifications

The evidence of extensive pastoral production along the margins of the pampa in Block 2 consist primarily of the structure bases from pastoral features along the margins of grazing area, primarily corrals, and associated artifact scatters. These pastoral facilities can be subdivided in terms of the size of the corral features and the apparent length of occupation based on artifact densities. Environmental characteristics do not help with isolating pastoral site groups, perhaps because the priority placed upon access to pasture dominates the site placement criteria. The mean slope of pastoral sites of various groupings in Block 2 is between 7-8°, and the most well-represented aspect for sites was the eastern aspect, accounting for 40 Block 2 sites.

A02-39 "Pausa 1"

The site of Pausa 1 was initially visited in 2002 following consultation with Dr. José Antonio Chávez (2001, Pers. Comm.) who explained that this entire area had been visited, and partially collected, by his student groups in the 1980s. Despite the earlier collection programs by Arequipa students, the 2003 survey team was able to locate large quantities of projectile points and some ceramics of both local and non-local stylistic groups. As described above, the raised corral structures are found along the edge of a large pampa paralleling the base of a lava flow from Huarancante. The broadest of these corral structures, and the group with the most interesting wall-base constructions, were the oval structures of Pausa. With a permit from the INC to place up to four 1x1m test units in this site the 2003 field team spent a number of weeks testing this site as reported in [Section 7.5] These test units revealed an occupation spanning the Late Formative Period, but ceramics and mortuary structures from later periods were also encountered here.


/Figs_Ch6/B2_EarlyPast/A02_39.jpg

Figure 6-58. Pausa [A02-39] showing raised oval structures, lithic concentrations, large rock forming wall bases, and test unit locations. Site mapped with Topcon total station and dGPS.


ArchID

Description

Number of
large rocks

Dimension (m)

Size (m2)

A03-557

Raised surface on slope to southwest of main Pausa site encircled by large rocks. Fill on downslope edge leveled the internal area.

26

15 x 20m, circular

271.8

A03-558

Area in center of Pausa site encircled by large rocks.

28

20 x 25m, circular

441.7

A03-559

Oval area raised ~1m off of the pampa and encircled with large rocks including a distinctive wall construction on east side with three niches in wall.

27

30 x 50m, oval

1175

Table 6-50. Dimension of structural features at Pausa [A02-39].

The structures at the Early Agropastoralist base of Pausa include two large, raised corral areas that are most evident because large rocks form a circle that appear to be wall bases from old corral walls. The largest of these rings is oval [A03-559] and it contains a smaller, circular structure [A03-558]. The larger rocks that encircle these features and form the wall bases are between 50cm and 100cm across, and the rocks are partially buried. Interestingly, the ovals all have approximately the same number of these large rocks (between 26 and 28), such that encircling the larger ovals the spacing between the rocks is larger than it is around the smaller ovals. As is evident in Figure 6-58, the rock spacing around A03-559 is approximately 5-7m, the spacing in A03-558 is highly irregular, and the spacing between rocks in the A03-557 oval is approximately 2-3m between rocks. The rocks could have represented the foundation rocks for corrals, but these would have been very substantial corrals and far larger than any contemporary corrals that were encountered in the region.

/misc/image084.jpg

Figure 6-59. Circular structure A03-557 extends from 1m behind the tape to just below the largest rocks at the back of the photo.

/misc/image085.jpg

Figure 6-60. Testing u3 and u4 on north edge of structures A03-558 and A03-559. This photo is taken from above, from the base of the lava flow.

Lithics

The site of Pausa was somewhat atypical of Block 2 raised corral features due to the size and diversity of materials found there. The material types in use indicate that, while a variety of material types were available, obsidian was more intensively processed in this area than other material types.

Ob1

Ob2

Volcanics

Chert

Total

Cores

1

1

2

Flakes

52

7

5

10

74

Points & Tools

8

1

1

10

Total

61

9

5

11

86

Table 6-51. Counts of lithics from surface collection at Pausa [A02-39].

Table 6-51 can be compared with the surface collection at Taukamayo in Block 3 (Table 6-54) where surface materials point to a greater availability of chert and quartzite in Block 3. While Pausa is somewhat deflated and eroded in places, it did not have a landslide like the site of Taukamayo exposing quantities of obsidian.

Discussion of Pausa

Pausa appears to have been one of the larger and more varied sites in the Block 3 settlement area, yet, based on surface artifacts, the activities at Pausa were fairly typical for these raised corral features. These include a variety of lithic reduction but, above all, a dominant presence of Ob1 obsidian. This relatively consistent access to Ob1 obsidian suggests that the Early Agropastoralists of Block 2 were affiliated with, or directly responsible for, some of the quarrying and production activities that were observed in the Block 1 Maymeja area.

The size of these structures, the regular spacing of large rocks, and the presence of regular rock "wall niches" on the eastern edge of A03-559 suggest that these platforms served as more than mere corrals and there this was also a locus for ritual activity. Obsidian was widely used in the Block 2 area on the whole, but the quantities at Pausa appear to have been far greater than at neighboring sites. It is possible that this site served as some kind of aggregation spot in the Block 2 puna, although it is difficult to speculate without further examination of this site. Test excavations revealed primarily a small hearth in a very small circular structure (Section 7.5.2), and evidently further excavation work is needed at Pausa.

Discussion of Block 2 Early Agropastoralists

Depending on the degree of re-occupancy in prehistory, the principal pastoral base sites with their associated corrals that were recorded are larger than one would expect given modern pastoralist behavior in the area. The herd sizes that noted in the Block 2 area during fieldwork between August and December 2003 were not carefully studied, but the herds seemed sufficiently large to use a corral 50m long corral as was noted at Pausa. However, herds would not require many corrals like Pausa in one area unless the herd sizes were significantly larger, perhaps growing and shrinking with the seasons. There are corrals of comparable size in the region, but the uncertainty lies in judging how many of these corrals were in use simultaneously.

It is possible that these corrals were used by passing caravans. As a perimeter settlement represented largely by groups linked to Colca Valley communities (as indicated by ceramics styles), it is possible that these larger facilities were designed to host passing caravans.

Pastoral Camps and rock shelters

The two smaller collections of Early Agropastoral sites in the Block 2 are grouped as "Pastoral Camps" and "Rock shelters". These sites consist of small enclosures and limited surface expression of ceramics from the Formative Period. The rock shelters often have geometrical, abstract parietal art on natural walls drawn in ochre. Often these sites will also have colonial rock art, typically Christian themes (such as the cross, or a Virgin Mary) in ochre as well, but these were excluded here from this review of prehispanic sites. The smaller sites could have been day-use areas as part of a strategy to distribute the impact of grazing. The rock shelters were generally small and may have been day shelters from weather as well as night shelters for very small groups.

Pastoral Bases

These are the largest sites in Block 2. They consist of pastoral facilities, associated residential structures and adjacent middens, and an artifact scatter extending along the margins of the grazing area. These sites are commonly found on a sloping area or a raised area along the margins of the pampa where the drainage is adequate. Animal control structures were frequent on these sites, with the majority of them taking the form of maintained or abandoned corrals of varying sizes. At the sites designated as "Pastoral Bases", corral structures were mapped and they range in area from 62 m2to 4,306 m2with a mean corral size of 671m2. Due to high rates of erosion, it was difficult to confirm from the soil consistency if it was largely dung soil inside of structures that appeared to be long-abandoned corrals. However, the raised area of these corrals are effectively low mounds that may be the result of accumulation of dung over long time periods, combined with some building up and filling in of the raised area to lift the corral areas off of the level of the pampa to improve drainage and avoid inundation during the wet season.

Structures

These structures on the puna edge appear to be pastoral facilities containing the bases of walls formed by rocks between 30 cm and 100cm in size that create a circular or elliptical enclosure. The area will often contain smaller enclosures that probably served more specifically as corrals, subdividing the protected area. These corrals might be occupied simultaneously or sequentially, and could contain individual herder's animals, or they may segregate the herd into sex and age categories as a part of pastoral management strategies (Flannery, et al. 1989;Flores Ochoa 1968). The presence of such large rocks at the base of these walls is perhaps explained by the need to keep small animals, such as young camelids, inside and the need to keep small predators out. Modern herder-built walls are often solidly constructed along the base and only along the top of the wall do smaller rocks get used.

These wall bases could be the remnants of corrals used by seasonal residents of this rich pasture region, or if they were used by passing caravans, the corrals could have been important facilities as part of a multi-day rest stop for caravans (Lecoq 1988: 185-186;Nielsen 2000: 461-462, 500-504;West 1981: 70).

Artifact scatters

The perimeters of pastoral bases often have dense artifact scatters, including pottery fragments from a variety of time periods, however there was a relatively low frequency of high density lithic loci inside of pastoral bases. When all of the high density loci are considered, only 30 (23%) of the high density lithic loci were located in sites classified as "pastoral bases".

High density lithic loci in this region primarily consist of obsidian flakes and it appears that, despite being located off of the pastoral base sites, these high lithic concentrations still seem to be associated with early pastoral occupations. This inference is based on two aspects of these high density loci: (1) most of the pre-Series 5 projectile points are not obsidian, while most of the Series 5 points are obsidian, and therefore if point production was occurring they were probably making Series 5 points; (2) if merely flakes were being produced, such production was probably linked to pastoral butchering, and therefore the obsidian is again linked to the pastoral occupation of the area. Why, then, were the high concentrations located outside of the pastoral base areas as noted above? One possibility is that one may be seeing a site maintenance pattern where some lithic production is occurring offsite during pastoral herding so that the residential base is not littered with sharp flakes.

6.4.3. Block 3 - Callalli

An Early Agropastoral period occupation of the Block 3 area is evident from survey work, but it is less dense than was encountered for this time period in Block 2, and it is also more faint than the evidence from the Late Prehispanic in this the Block 3 area itself.

/Figs_Ch6/B3_EarlyPast/Block3_EarlyPast.jpg

Figure 6-61. Early Agropastoralist settlement in Block 3.


The Early Agropastoral settlement in the Callalli area is difficult to isolate from later pastoral settlement, but the evidence that was encountered suggests that it was a distributed settlement pattern with similarities to the pastoral pattern observed elsewhere in the higher altitude portion study area. The criteria used to discern this settlement pattern were sites with pastoral attributes (grazing lands, water), and the potentially the presence of the unslipped Chiquero type ceramics considered Formative in the main Colca valley by Wernke (2003).

Occupations are generally small and diffuse, with rock shelters and river terraces providing the majority of the settlement locations. The rock shelter of Quelkata [Q03-985], described in the preceding Archaic Foragers - Block 3 section, had a substantial a-ceramic occupation. However the vast majority of the projectile points analyzed by Chavez (1978) appear to fall into Series 5 in the Klink and Aldenderfer (2005) typology, placing the occupation in the Terminal Archaic. Elsewhere in Block 3, several multicomponent sites were occupied during this time period, most notably Taukamayo [A02-26].

A02-26 "Taukamayo"

The multicomponent site of Taukamayo sits on a terrace above Quebrada Taukamayo just west of the modern town of Callalli. In the course of the 2003 survey the site was surface mapped as A03-675 in keeping with the 2003 survey methodology, but the official site number on the test excavation permit is A02-26. The site was tested with a 1x1m test unit and two partial units that produced dates circa cal AD650 (Section 7.6.1).

The site is located on a terrace above a tributary to the Río Llapa immediately upstream of the large confluence with the Río Colca. Located in a parcel owned by Noemi Ramos, who resides primarily in Arequipa, the site is located across Taukamayo creek from the modern village of Callalli. The town site of Callalli has Inka and possibly earlier components evident on the western edge of the town limits, but the occupation encountered at Taukamayo is earlier.

It is possible that Taukamayo was a peripheral site to the principal settlement at Callalli. Nielsen's (2000: 465-468, 490) ethnoarchaeological research on camelid caravans notes that when caravans stop overnight at settlements they will frequently camp in areas segregated from the principal settlement for two reasons. First, interference in the activities of residents, stampedes, and other forms of conflict can be avoided by remaining on the periphery of the settlement. Second, the agricultural fields can be better defended from caravan animals by camping a prudent distance from farm plots. In the modern trail system the principal route linking the Callalli area with the Chivay obsidian source and other high puna regions to the south climbs the Taukamayo drainage. Thus, Taukamayo may have represented a kind node in a larger transportation network because it is a relatively large site lying precisely in the area where the highland trail system joins the river network, but it is across the drainage from the settlement of Callalli.

/Figs_Ch6/B3_LatePrehisp/A02_26.jpg

Figure 6-62. Taukamayo [A02-26], a multicomponent site partially destroyed by a landslide.

/misc/image086.jpg

Figure 6-63. Overview of Taukamayo [A02-26] on slump along base of hillside. Grey box shows area detailed in Figure 6-64, below.

/misc/image087.jpg

Figure 6-64. Taukamayo [A02-26] detail showing two test units locations on cutbank margins of the creep area. Excavators are visible on right-side at A02-26u1 and provide scale for photo.

Ceramics

The multicomponent nature of this site is most evident from the spatial and temporal variety of pottery styles observed here. This site contained the only pottery diagnostic to the Titicaca Basin Formative, and it also has a sherd from a Titicaca Basin LIP beaker. Tiwanaku sherds, however, are conspicuously absent as they are elsewhere in the valley contrasting with regional obsidian distributions.

Period

Estilo

Beaker

Bowl

Olla

Neckless Olla

Plate

Cup

Unknown

Total

LH

Collagua-Inka

2

1

3

LIP-LH

Collagua

1

1

LIP

Colla

1

1

MH

Local MH

1

1

2

F-MH

Chiquero-like

2

1

6

7

1

8

25

MF

Qaluyu-like

2

2

Total

6

3

7

7

1

2

8

34

Table 6-5. All ceramics from Taukamayo [A02-26] and vicinity.

Evidence from ceramics reveal that while the site has components from all ceramics-using periods, the strongest evidence is from the earlier periods, particularly from the unslipped, brushed ware that has similarities to Chiquero style from the main Colca valley. These Chiquero-like sherds at Taukamayo are notable because this style of sherd is abundant at this site, and while this style was widespread in Block 2 the 2003 survey data shows that Taukamayo is the only location in Block 3 where Chiquero style sherds were encountered.

Surface collection in the slump debris at the site also revealed several sherds that appear to belong to Titicaca Basin styles, representing one of the few pieces of possible evidence of reciprocation for the quantities of Chivay obsidian that have been found in the Titicaca Basin. These Titicaca Basin styles include two sherds with similarities to the Middle Formative north Titicaca Basin style Qaluyu or early Pukara.

/misc/image088.jpg

Figure 6-65. Non-local incised and stamped pottery from Taukamayo [A02-26], in the 2003 provenience these are A03-679.2 and A03-679.3.

Furthermore, a Colla sherd from the Titicaca Basin LIP was found here. The relatively high density of non-local ceramics from Taukamayo supports the idea that Taukamayo was a camp for non-local passersby, and perhaps caravan moving through the upper Colca valley.

Condition of Site

The site was partially destroyed by a broad slumping of the hillside above the site. Callalli residents (Ramos, Ordóñez, Windischhofer) have indicated that the creeping displacement began during the rainy season in early 2001.. Down-cutting in the stream bed of the adjacent Quebrada Taukamayo may have contributed to the recent creep. A historically large El Niño - Southern Oscillation occurred in the years 1997-1998, and a smaller one occurred in 2002-2003, therefore the slumping was not immediately attributable to the unusually heavy ENSO rainfall. Furthermore, a 2.5 m deep trench diverting water from the slope above Callalli was cut in the recent past, and this trench diverts water into the Quebrada Taukamayo watershed. The increased water volume in the quebrada beginning after the 1997-1998 ENSO and with additional water from the Callalli diversion trench, is perhaps contributing to a significant down-cutting of the stream bed which leads to a greater overall gradient of the slope and greater probability of sliding.

In the debris pile at the base of this landslide, ceramics from a variety of time periods were encountered, revealing the multicomponent nature of the settlement. While the landslide has destroyed much of the site, and threatens to destroy more area immediately north and south of the current slide zone, the creep has presented a few opportunities for archaeological observation as well. First, in the debris pile at the base of the slump one is able to observe ceramics from throughout the temporal sequence at the site. Second, in the cut on the north and south edges of the landslide, places where the cut varies between 50cm and 200cm in height, the 2003 survey team was able to observe lenses containing ash, bone, lithics, and pottery, permitting a relatively targeted testing of this deposit.

Discussion

It is immediately apparent that Taukamayo is an unusual site in the Block 3 area. The variety of ceramics and the diversity of lithic material types suggest that the occupants of the site participated in the circulation of goods on a larger geographical scale than did other sites in the region. Furthermore, while bifacially flaked obsidian implements were not uncommon in Block 3, these artifacts appeared to be relatively highly curated. At Taukamayo, reduction evidence from unmodified flakes and cores of obsidian was widespread.

The diversity of ceramic types observed at this site, and the potential for encountering ceramics from various stratigraphic levels in the mixed debris of the slump deposit, was significant. Non-local materials were encountered in styles belonging to the Titicaca Basin dating to the Middle Formative and the Late Intermediate Period, however in the broad sample provided by the Taukamayo landslide debris there was a notable lack of diagnostic ceramics from the time periods featuring the most political integration in the Titicaca Basin: the Late Formative polities and the Tiwanaku period.

Lithics

The most notable feature of Taukamayo was the relatively high density of obsidian as compared with other areas of Block 3. It appears that obsidian reduction occurred here on a number of occasions and due to the landslide, obsidian flakes appear in many parts of the slide deposition pile.

Taukamayo Cores - Surface

Entire Block 3 Surface Collection

Material

No.

m Cortex

mWt

sWt

No.

m Cortex

mWt

sWt

Obsidian

10

25

14.31

7.8

17

5.0

23.2

13.1

Volcanics

-

-

-

-

2

7.5

87.7

42.6

Chalcedony

-

-

-

-

4

16.7

47.5

18.1

Chert

1

0

34.4

-

18

32.1

57.17

33.8

Total

12

32.1

48.4

29.0

41

21.6

43.6

31.3

Table 6-53. Cores from the surface of Taukamayo as compared with the entire Block 3 surface collection.

Obsidian cores (all Ob1) were relatively abundant at Taukamayo but they were not exceptionally common. Nodules of black and tan colored chert were observed in the creek bed at Taukamayo and the material was being flaked elsewhere on terraces adjacent to the creek, but curiously only one core of this chert was found at Taukamayo. The distribution of obsidian material at the site suggests that a range of reduction stages on obsidian were occurring in this location and comparably less of the local chert or quartzite material was in use.

Ob1

Ob2

Volcanics

Chalcedony

Chert

Quartzite

Total

Flakes

138

199

53

25

181

79

675

Cores

11

8

-

2

4

1

26

Points & Tools

22

15

1

-

1

-

40

Hoes

-

-

16

-

-

-

16

Total

171

222

70

27

186

80

757

Table 6-54. Counts of lithics from surface collection at Taukamayo [A02-26].

This table shows that counts of obsidian are relatively high at Taukamayo. These counts should not be compared directly with other sites in Block 3 because these analysis results reflect two unusual aspects of Taukamayo. First, the high counts at this site are, in part, due the visibility of lithics in the debris from the landslide. Second, a detailed lithics analysis was conducted on the excavated materials from A02-26u1, as well as on surface materials from this site, and these high counts reflect this detailed analysis.

Chert and quartzite are immediately available in this area, and yet these material types are the minority in representation in flaked stone artifacts at the site. Secondly, Ob2 obsidian was relatively common at Taukamayo. As compared with the Block 2 site of Pausa (see Table 6-51 in Block 2 discussion) where obsidian use is primarily (87%) Ob1 material, at Block 3 Taukamayo there appears to be less concern for the clarity of the material or the presence of heterogeneities because 57% of the obsidian artifacts are Ob2 material. In fact, Taukamayo contains the highest proportion of bifacially flaked tools made from Ob2 material from the entire survey area. Notably, however, these were primarily bifaces not points, as only two of the artifacts made from Ob2 obsidian were projectile points.

/Figs_Ch6/B3_EarlyPast/DSCN0222.jpg

/Figs_Ch6/B3_EarlyPast/DSCN0223.jpg

Figure 6-66. Sixteen large andesite hoes were found at Taukamayo [A02-26].

Finally, this site contained an exceptional collection of sixteen large, broken andesite hoes. The hoes varied considerably in size, and it is difficult to assess the original, unbroken size of the items. The hoes ranged in weight from 112g to one as large as 1189g (shown in Figure 6-66, right), with a high variance. All showed signs of intial shaping with percussion flaking as well as flake scars from use. The mean weight was 512g, but with a standard deviation of 483.7.

These hoes had bifacial flaking on the working edge, and most showed polish from use, but no hafting wear was observed under visual inspection. The source of the andesite has not been determined, but if the source lies somewhere distant it is possible that, as with obsidian, Taukamayo contained a high percentage of non-local lithic materials that contrasts with neighboring sites in the area (see lithic analysis data reported in Section 7.6.1).

6.5. Survey Results: Late Prehispanic Period (AD400 - AD1532)

This temporal period includes the Tiwanaku Period in the Titicaca Basin (AD400) through the Inka Period (AD1532), a time when geographical distributions of Chivay obsidian are strongly influenced by pan-regional political and economic forces. Following anthropological models, it is among ranked or stratified societies that the procurement and redistribution of scarce raw materials is expected to occur as part of elite political strategy (Earle 1991;Renfrew 1975). If obsidian was a sought-after commodity that was controlled and redistributed by among complex polities one might expect restricted access or some other sign of control by the dominant state power at or near the obsidian source. The use of irregularly distributed raw materials, like obsidian, among complex polities may also involve either reciprocation or direct exploitation by agents of those polities, both processes that may leave evidence in the vicinity of the obsidian source.

Archaeological horizons during the Late Prehispanic period in the south-central Andes are demonstrated by stylistic commonalities that include pottery, architecture, and portable goods that were distributed within regional polities. These stylistic similarities are distinctive, well-studied, and often diagnostic to time period. Very little evidence was encountered in the course of this research of obsidian procurement by non-local parties, despite the abundant evidence of Chivay obsidian consumption in the larger region and sometimes in civic/ceremonial core of these regional polities. Nevertheless, the procurement and initial production activities of obsidian under the larger regional influences of the Late Prehispanic period may provide insights into the economy in which obsidian was circulated. When the larger economy was restructured by regional polities, the transformation that occurs in the circulation of goods like obsidian can demonstrate the differences between the older established economic patterns and the establishment of new patterns under the authority of a regional polity.

6.5.1. Block 1 - Source

The 2003 Upper Colca project evidence from diagnostic artifacts indicate that Late Prehispanic activity in the obsidian source area principally took the form of pastoral activities, construction of mortuary architecture, and possible water control projects. Evidence from the Late Prehispanic in this area depends largely on the presence of diagnostic ceramics and architecture, but if the example provided by modern pastoralists in the area may serve as an indicator, architecture was likely akin to the traditional herder's shelter, and vessels were probably non-diagnostic utilitarian cooking vessels. A few utilitarian vessel sherds were observed in the Block 1 area, but the overall presence of pottery was relatively low. Another pattern that can be safely extrapolated into prehistory is that the residents of Maymeja were probably not wasteful with the pottery that they had transported up to the grazing area, because pottery is relatively scarce in this area. Thus, the ability of archaeologists to perceive activities during the period termed "Late Prehispanic" depends to some degree on recovering diagnostic features that differ from the well-established herder pattern that had predominated in the Maymeja area for probably 5000 years. Other good evidence of Late Prehispanic procurement and processing by local groups would come from consumption patterns observable in adjacent settlements during that time period, principally in Blocks 2 and 3 of the 2003 survey.

From the evidence of Chivay obsidian distributions, the quarry and the associated workshop may be expected to have continued use through the Tiwanaku period or LIP, and then it would decline in use during the Inka and the Colonial period. In the Colonial period with the widespread availability of metals and bottle glass, obsidian use was largely abandoned, except for minor applications by local pastoralists. Therefore, during the Hispanic period the quarry pit may have been abandoned and the quarry and workshop features would perhaps be covered by soil accumulation and ash deposits from nearby volcanoes after more than 500 years with little use.

As will be presented below, the 2003 survey found no diagnostic evidence of Tiwanaku, and no Colla (non-local LIP) materials in the quarry area. Limited Inka and Collagua-Inka pottery were encountered, and these Late Horizon ceramic distributions appear to have been primarily related to mortuary features and to the focus on the water and the grazing opportunities in the Maymeja area.

/Figs_Ch6/B1_LatePrehisp/Block1_LatePrehisp.jpg

Figure 6-67. Block 1 Late Prehispanic features.

Pastoral activities

Grazing activities appear to have persisted during the Late Prehispanic in Block 1 as they did during the Early Agropastoralist period. Low densities of non-diagnostic sherds from utilitarian wares are found in association with colonial and modern sherds near the estancia in Maymeja A03-570. Pottery is otherwise relatively scarce in the Maymeja area. It is notable that no diagnostic MH, LIP, or LH sherds were found in association with the estancia at A03-570, or at other pastoral occupations in Maymeja, except for the A03-126 workshop area. One can also expect the later occupants of Maymeja to have continued to make use of the "Camino Hornillo" [A03-268] route leading to the quarry pit from the Escalera thoroughfare. However, if Late Prehispanic peoples did make use of this route, they left virtually no ceramics associated with it that would indicate that the quarry pit road was a regularly used feature.

A03-275 "Maymeja 5"

Just southwest of the area of the obsidian workshop, on the south perimeter of Maymeja, an extensive construction area (1 Ha) was encountered on the rocky slope along the edge of the bofedal that was generally terraced although heavily eroded. This area is shown in more detail on the map in Figure 6-54.

/misc/image089.jpg

Figure 6-68. Three levels of terracing in [A03-275] below glacier polished rhyolite flow. Yellow tape shows 1m.

The construction along the margins of the bofedal was curiously devoid of ceramics, as were the other terraces immediately adjacent to the A03-126 Maymeja workshop. A light scatter of obsidian flakes is found throughout the terraced area, however, and obsidian flakes are concentrated along the base of the slope although these concentrations probably reflect downslope movement of artifacts. In this sector, on the south-west edge of the bofedal, several Late Horizon "Collagua-Inka" plates were encountered, and it is possible that this entire sector was constructed at a later time. The corner of a structure with a possible niche that appears to be built using the Inka-influenced cut-stone masonry technique was found 70m southwest of the obsidian workshop [A03-126] inside the larger terraced site area [A03-275]. Unfortunately, the remaining sides of this structure are too eroded to permit an estimate of the structure size, or to discern if it was a residential or mortuary construction. A pattern discussed by Wernke (2003) in the Colca valley was for circular residential structures to be dominant among pastoral settlements above 3900m. Given this architectural pattern, the structure at A03-339 is perhaps a square chulparather than a residential structure.

(a)/misc/image090.jpg

(b)/misc/image091.jpg

Figure 6-69. (a) Cutstone masonry [A03-339] from site A03-275 close to the workshop area at the Chivay obsidian source. Yellow tape shows 50cm. (b) Rim sherds from an 18cm diameter Inka-Collagua plate were found adjacent to this corner.

The presence of diagnostic Late Horizon materials in the obsidian source area was somewhat unexpected because during the Late Horizon the regional distribution of Chivay obsidian was relatively restricted in comparison with any time period since the Terminal Archaic. It is possible that the Late Horizon occupation in this area, particularly the painted plates, result from ritual functions associated with the abundant spring that irrigates the bofedal in the southern of Maymeja area, and that spring emerges very close to this location. However, if the structure [A03-339] is a looted Late Horizon chulpa, then the plate could have been one of the grave goods.

A03-240 "Molinos 1"

The only local Middle Horizon evidence from Block 1 close to the Chivay source comes from a pastoral area part of the way up the Quebrada de los Molinos climbing up from Chivay, 350 vertical meters above the town. This site is found adjacent to several large breccia boulders near a bofedal where the trail climbing from Chivay levels out after a steep pitch. A partially eroded rim sherd [A03-242.1] was found here that is diagnostic to the local Middle Horizon style. The sherd is made of burnished brown paste and with traces of paint on the rim, but the rim was too small to take a measure of the vessel diameter.

Mortuary features

Several chulpaswere identified in the Maymeja portion of Block 1, the locations of these features is shown on Figure 6-67.

A03-215 "Saylluta 1" appears to be a relatively large chulpa(2m in diameter). A mortuary function for this structure is suggested by the doorway which is only 70 cm high. No diagnostic materials were found. The base of a square structure was located just to the east that is possibly an old corral or a shelter, but it appears to be too large to be a roofed space.

A03-274 is a small crevice west of A03-201 with remnants of a wall inside and several small bones that appear to have been animal bones. A diagnostic Inka rim sherd of non-local design [A03-274.1] was found here.

A03-578 is circular chulpamade with double-walled construction, but without mortar. The chulpameasures approximately 2m in diameter. A site consisting of a light scatter of obsidian [A03-575] surrounds the chulpaand extends out onto a large promontory overlooking the Quebrada de los Molinos and the access to Maymeja from the trail climbing up from Chivay. There was also a medium density lithic locus here [A03-576] consisting primarily of flakes in tertiary stages of reduction (0-50% dorsal cortex). This site conforms to the pattern of lithic reduction atop the bluff on the western edge of Maymeja with very high observation potential. Visibility/exposure at this site is 39 by the visibility index, while the mean for sites in Block 1 is 18.5. This high visibility reduction pattern is discussed in Section 8.3.3.

In addition, the corner of the eroded structure at A03-339, described above, is perhaps a LH square chulpa(Figure 6-69).

Possible Late Prehispanic canal route

As agricultural intensification and terrace construction accelerated during Late Prehispanic times, the volume of water entering canal systems from the high altitude headwaters would have become increasingly important to the farmers below. The Huarancante canal system that irrigates the southern half of the Colca valley has been discussed in more detail elsewhere (Brooks 1998: 203-213;Wernke 2003: 235-246). This canal irrigates some of the most productive farm land in the main Colca valley, including the area around Yanque, the dominant community during the LIP and LH. Any additional water contributed into the Huarancante canal system would have been of great utility downstream.

While no glaciers are found in the Maymeja area and the precise date of deglaciation of Cerro Ancachita and Hornillo are not known, the spring that irrigates the southern half of Maymeja has a relatively high volume of flow. This flow is particularly notable in this porous volcanic landscape, where much of the surface water disappears underground. The substantial volume of water that descends from here to Chivay was sufficient to justify the construction of a mill during colonial times (the apparent namesake of Quebrada de los Molinos). Today, this water powers a small hydroelectricity plant for Chivay.

According to Sr. Mamami (2005, pers. comm.), the owner of "Tambo", a rich estancia between Chivay and Cerro Hornillo, a canal existed that connected Maymeja with Huarancante in the past and it traversed high above eastern edge of his land. Upon further discussion with S. Wernke (2005, pers. comm.), the significance of a possible extension to the modern Huarancante canal is explored here, as this extension would have been an important asset had it connected the abundant perennial spring in Maymeja to the Huarancante canal.

A possible route using contours derived from the ASTER 30m topographic DEM layer is presented here. Following Brooks' (1998: 203) estimate of 1° or less downslope for the canal, the canal is extended up from the point at which the existing canal departs from Quebrada Huanta Occo at 4745 masl on the north slopes of Nevado Huarancante. The contour distance to the Maymeja bofedal is approximately 10.5 km, which, at a 1° slope, would require a vertical change of 183m, indicating that the canal would have had to begin at around 4928 masl. The altitude of the Maymeja workshop in site A03-126 is 4902m, therefore when extrapolated over more than 10km the gradient potential exists for such a canal, but it would have required losing very little altitude across difficult terrain. No specific cliff bands block the construction of such a canal, but a steep lava cliff passes immediately above the canal route and the slopes below this loose cliff consist of an incline of sand and talus at approximately 45°. These features would have presented a difficult obstacle to canal construction.

Under Inka rule, the Collagua extended their agricultural production through projects such as canal expansion, and the construction of such a canal would serve to explain, in part, the predominance of Late Horizon Collagua-Inka ceramics over LIP Collagua ceramics in the Maymeja area. Unfortunately, due to fieldwork time constraints, the Upper Colca survey project was not been able to conduct a pedestrian survey along this potential canal route. The route contours around an extremely high colluvation zone below the lava outcrops of Cerro Llalluhue, and a canal in this area would have required significant maintenance.

The possible canal route shown on Figure 6-67 and Figure 6-70 is 11 km long and drops from 4905 to 4745 masl at a gradient of 0.83°. No features definitively related to canal construction were observed, but further fieldwork could confirm Sr. Mamani's account. Another possibility is that the Inka-Collagua presence in the Maymeja area results from a work-in-progress where feasibility study measurements and initial work were perhaps underway for the construction such a canal in the 16thcentury when the Spanish arrived. A scenario such as this would have left somewhat ambiguous evidence in the Maymeja area.

/Figs_Ch6/B1_LatePrehisp/Block1_PossCanal.jpg

Figure 6-70. Blocks 1 and 4 overview showing possible route of Late Prehispanic canal.

Block 4 and 5 Reconnaissance Area

During the Middle Horizon, LIP and Late Horizon in the high altitude reconnaissance area near the Chivay source, several clusters of sites were observed that testify to the variety of lands used by pastoralists in this period. During the 2003 survey non-local Inka ceramics were encountered even in small, distributed pastoral sites, a higher frequency of use of obsidian with heterogeneities (Ob2), and a spatially distributed occupation pattern. These distributions perhaps reflect the growing herd sizes in the Collagua domain during the Late Prehispanic, and the need to exploit the resources in the puna as they become seasonally available.

/Figs_Ch6/Block45_LatePrehisp.jpg

Figure 6-71. Blocks 4 and 5 Reconnaissance - Late Prehispanic component.


An example of this distributed occupation pattern was apparent in the arid area on the south-east flanks Cerro Hornillo. Surveying across this arid area, the 2003 survey team encountered a settlement close to two ponds A03-738 "Lecceta 1" consisting of two small rock shelters and open air sites containing LIP and LH ceramics. The site includes a light scatter of obsidian flakes over the larger region, and two sectors with medium and high density obsidian scatters. The interesting thing about this site is the high incidence of use of Ob2 obsidian.

Between 500m and 1000m north of this settlement surveyors encountered surface obsidian lag gravels eroding from the base of the south-east flank of Hornillo in a formation that appears to represent a secondary obsidian quarry area. In fact, on further investigation of the source materials, it was noted that much of the obsidian on this side of Hornillo had heterogeneities (Ob2) consisting of <1 mm air bubbles trapped in the glass, as well as what appear to be ash particles. The nodules in this area were as large as 15cm long, but the typical large nodule for the area was only < 8 cm on a side. It seemed like the larger nodules had more Ob2 heterogeneities, as if perhaps there had been a preferential collection of large Ob1 nodules from this area.

The site of Lecceta 1 [A03-738] had unusually high levels of use of Ob2 obsidian. The Ob2 material was being knapped more extensively than anywhere else in the survey area.

Form

Ob1 - homogeneous

Ob2 - heterogeneous

At site A03-738

Project surface collection

At site A03-738

Project surface collection

Tools

2

100.0

290

92.7

-

-

23

7.3

Cores

17

70.8

201

84.5

7

29.2

37

15.5

Flakes

17

60.7

201

84.5

11

39.3

101

21.4

Total

36

66.7

861

84.2

18

33.3

161

15.8

Table 6-55. Ob1 and Ob2 obsidian use at A03-738 "Lecceta 1" compared with entire project.

While there were more Ob1 cores, flakes, and tools collected at A03-738, there was a fair amount of reduction was occurring on the Ob2 material that was available near this camp. In particular, Ob2 cores and flakes are used at a much higher percentage in this site on than on average for the project on the whole. Given the Late Horizon evidence from this site, these data could be interpreted as supporting the notion that during the Late Prehispanic the acquisition of "high quality" obsidian, represented by Ob1 material, was deprioritized because obsidian was primarily used for the basic pastoral functions of butchering and shearing.

6.5.2. Block 2 - San Bartolomé

The Late Prehispanic occupation of the high puna area of San Bartolomé shows a continuation of earlier pastoral uses of the Block 2 grazing lands, but the ceramic assemblage reveals the strong links between this area and the main Colca valley. The modern political structure of Block 2 links this area to the town of Yanque in the Colca valley. Political hierarchy related to the structure of aylluorganization in the Colca valley was reflected in the estanciasand anexosof the herding areas such as Block 2 (Benavides 1989;Wernke 2003: 359-368).

Despite the ascendancy of Chivay in the early twentieth century (Guillet 1992: 27-29), the regional dominance of Yanque in the Late Prehispanic and colonial period is reflected in the large number of Collagua anexos, such as the communities of Chalhuanca, Pulpera, and the estancias that fall within the Upper Colca Project Block 2 survey area. These anexosall belong to Yanque, despite being geographically closer to Chivay. Straight line distance from the site of Pausa [A03-39] in Block 2 across to Chivay is 22 km, while the distance to Yanque is 28 km. When traveling from Pulpera one would walk through Chivay to get to Yanque most directly. Residents in these Collagua anexostravel to Yanque to vote in elections; and, fittingly, the family name of virtually everyone encountered in Block 2 was "Callagua". The ties between residents of Block 2 and the Colca valley appear strong in the ethnohistoric and modern records, but the archaeological evidence from Block 2 reveals that this area was also a place of contact with Titicaca Basin communities. The ceramic evidence is strong, at least, for Titicaca Basin interaction during the Late Intermediate and Late Horizon.

Discussion

The Late Prehispanic occupation of the Block 2 area appears to have been oriented towards maintaining herds in this grazing area. Small quantities of non-local pottery were encountered here, but the overwhelming majority of the styles demonstrate the close connection between this area and the main Colca Valley.

Late Horizon

The Late Horizon evidence from the San Bartolomé area comes primarily from sherds of the Inka-influenced local ceramic style described as Collagua-Inka (Wernke 2003). A number of Collagua-Inka plates and beakers were found in Block 2, and approximately half of them were painted. A number of painted, non-local Inka plates were found in this area as well, particularly in the northern Chiripascapa area. Ethnohistoric sources document the vast herds of camelids tended by the Collagua (Crespo 1977;Wernke 2003: 83-84). From his survey work, Wernke (2003: 184) reports a distinct expansion of herding in the LH where "…nine of the 16 Late Horizon herding settlements that lack LIP components are pastoralist settlements located in the puna". Wernke also reports finding a small number of LH sherds with similarities to the Chucuito (Late Horizon Titicaca Basin) style in the course of his survey, and these sherds were observed in herder settlements in the puna on both the north and south sides of the main Colca valley.

In the Block 2 area a relatively consistent occupation was encountered in the 2003 Upper Colca survey that includes both LIP and the LH settlement. There is some suggestion of slightly lower occupation during the LH, but this may be the result of concentration of settlement into a fewer but larger pastoral bases.

/Figs_Ch6/B2-LatePrehisp/Block2_LatePrehisp_LH.jpg

Figure6-77. Block 2 diagnostic artifacts from the Late Horizon.

Two LH sherds from the 2003 survey were of the Titicaca Basin Late Horizon Chucuito style and they were both observed in the Block 2 survey area. The presence of only two Titicaca Basin sherds is a notable a reduction from the LIP when 14 Colla sherds were encountered in this area. The LH is a much shorter time period than the LIP, but nevertheless the reduction is notable and perhaps reflects a deliberate effort by the Inka to regionally isolate Aymara polities and intercede in Colla and Collagua economies.

Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period

The evidence for Middle Horizon occupation in the San Bartolomé area is confined to the northern part of Block 2. A number of beaker rims in local Middle Horizon styles were found in this area in association with pastoral features. A sherd of undetermined stylistic origin was found [A03-1056.1] with geometric elements that suggest a Middle Horizon or perhaps LIP date (B. Bauer, 2004 pers. comm; K. Schreiber, 2004 pers. comm.).

/misc/image092.jpg

Figure 6-72. Non-local sherd with geometric elements akin to Middle Horizon or LIP styles [A03-1056.1].

It is not evident whether the pattern of Middle Horizon settlement in the north part of Block 2 predominantly reflects cultural relationships, environmental conditions, or some combination of the two. Culturally, the settlement in the northern parts of Block 2, in particular the Huañatira area, may have maintained close links with the Colca valley and therefore the pottery better reflects styles that were documented by Wernke (2003) in his seriation of pottery in main Colca valley.

/Figs_Ch6/B2-LatePrehisp/Block2_LatePrehisp_MH-LIP.jpg

Figure 6-73. Block 2 diagnostic artifacts from the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period.

From an ecological perspective, the bofedal along the northern part of Block 2 has significantly greater dry season water flow than the smaller bofedales in the southern parts of the survey block, and perhaps settlement was concentrated in the northern area of Block 2 during the Middle Horizon in order to exploit the large bofedal that lies to the north-east. During the October dry season, when the Upper Colca Project surveyed in this area, grazing was only occurring at the bofedales that are depicted on Figure 6-73.

The local Late Intermediate period evidence in this region consists primarily of sherds from Collagua-1 and Collagua-2 style bowls (Wernke 2003), some of which were painted. Significantly a number of sherds from Colla style beakers and plates from the Titicaca Basin were encountered, some of which were painted, that belong to the "Altiplano" LIP pottery tradition. The sherds from painted plates observed here belong to a style that is also found in the mid-sierra of Moquegua (Stanish 2004, pers. comm.).

These beakers and plates artifacts, the proveniences of which are labeled on Figure 6-70, are part of a larger suite of shared traits between the Collagua of the Colca and the Colla of Lake Titicaca. These traits include the construction of fortified pukaras, mortuary architecture, cranial modification, and the Aymara language (Section 3.5.3). Despite this apparent affinity, obsidian is not abundant on the Late Intermediate sites of northern Late Titicaca Basin(Arkush 2005: 247, 709-711).

A03-855 "Huañatira 2"

This site shows the pattern of reoccupation of these enclosed raised corrals as were discussed above with the Early Agropastoralist occupation of A02-39 "Pausa 1", and it is also adjacent to a Archaic Foragers occupation described above in the Archaic Period discussion of A03-900 "Huañatira". This site contains components from a variety of time periods, and it demonstrates the redundancy, the non-contemporaneous occupation, and the shallow refuse disposal that were encountered in most pastoral sites (Nielsen 2000: 480-483).

/misc/image093.jpg

Figure 6-74. Huañatira [A03-855]. Corrals, structures, and artifacts scatters wrap around the base of the lava escarpment. A small figure is visible on the right edge for scale.

Time Period

Style

No.

% of Column

Non-local LH

Chucuito-Inka

1

1.1

Inka

3

3.2

Local LH

Collagua-3

11

11.8

Collagua-Inka

13

14

Non-local LIP

Colla

9

9.7

Local LIP

Collagua

9

9.7

Collagua-2

7

7.5

Local MH

Local MH

3

3.2

Poss. Formative

Brushed, no slip

37

39.8

Total

93

100

Table 6-56. Diagnostic sherds from Huañatira 2 [A03-855].


/Figs_Ch6/B2-LatePrehisp/A030855.jpg

Figure6-75. Huañatira A03-817 and A03-855 multicomponent site showing corral structures.

Lithic reduction activities in this site complex appear to have been similar to those encountered at Pausa where obsidian reduction seems to have been occurring with frequency. The pattern results in a large percentage of small obsidian flakes and relatively small cores as compared with other material types.

Immediately to the north of the Huañatira sector described here, a rock shelter [A03-957] with an Archaic Period component was encountered that also contained the remnants of a cist tomb (shown on Figure 6-20).The cist consists of a recessed circle [A03-958] that is 3.17m in diameter north-south, and 3.22m in diameter east-west, and 54 to 60cm deep. Twenty slab stones were used to face the circle. The remnants of a wall is visible just inside the dripline of the shelter, and the circle is 2.16m to the north of this wall.

/misc/image094.jpg

Figure 6-76. Cist tomb with mortared stonework, view from inside shelter (see also Figure 6-21). Shrubs are growing on remains of wall, visible in background. A 1m tape is visible inside the stone circle for scale.

Two crania were found with notable bilobate deformation. A number of long-bones were also evident (MNI = 2). The feature appears to have been a walled-in cave tomb that was perhaps looted long ago. The shelter is in a south-east orientation and so the area remains cool much of the time. It would make a tomb with cool temperatures that would slow down decomposition.

6.5.3. Block 3 - Callalli

In the Block 3 area, in the upper Colca valley, a significant increase in population and land use intensity is apparent from the distribution of settlement, mortuary features, and fortifications encountered in this region.

Block 6

Block 6 is located along the Challacone drainage just upstream from the town of Tuti, on the western edge of the study area. A map showing this survey block appeared in Figure 6-42. In addition to an interesting Archaic component, this area contained local MH, LIP, and local LH ceramics. Furthermore, the bases for five chulpaswere encountered along the ridgetop just east of Quebrada Challacone.

Discussion

The evidence from the Late Prehispanic occupation of Block 3 suggests that a significant population increase occurred during this time in the upper Colca valley. The evidence from the Tiwanaku period and the Middle Horizon appear to show small settlements with an economy focused primarily on pastoralism. Despite the wide circulation of Chivay obsidian during this period, there is no evidence in Block 3 of outside contact during the Middle Horizon except for the Wari influence in the local Middle Horizon ceramic technology, as described by Malpass and de la Vera Cruz (1986) and by Wernke (2003). During the Late Intermediate Period, dramatic changes are notable in a variety of forms of archaeological evidence in a pattern that is consistent with that observed by Wernke in the main Colca valley. Some limited agricultural cultivation appears to have been practiced given the association of LIP ceramics with cultivated areas. Pukara construction and some types of chulpaburial monuments are further evidence of LIP period occupation.

Late Horizon

In the Block 3 area the Late Horizon appears to involve the settlement of larger communities along the wide terrace margins of the Río Llapa. Sites associated with cultivated areas that had a slight Middle Horizon component and a stronger LIP component, appear to be the most extensively occupied under Inka dominance in the Late Horizon. The LH pattern of large settlements adjacent to agricultural lands is consistent with the pattern observed elsewhere in the highlands of southern Peru. In the Lake Titicaca Basin, Stanish notes that the settlement hierarchy for sites under 2.5 Ha remained mostly unchanged with the onset of the LH, but under Inka rule new large administrative sites were founded (Stanish 2003: 253-258). In the main Colca valley, Wernke (2003: 217-224,439-441) concludes that Inka administrative strategy involved ruling through local elites using the pre-existing ayllustructure of community organization. The effect on the settlement system was to promote a single administrative center, Yanque, to the top of the settlement hierarchy and other LIP sites became second-tier centers.

In the Callalli area, Late Horizon diagnostic ceramics were appear to have been concentrated along the south margin of the confluence area, known as Callalli Antiguo, and a small concentration of Late Horizon materials were found on the south-western edge of modern Callalli. The town of Sibayo, on the north side of the river confluence, was outside of the 2003 survey boundary, but it is possible that a Late Horizon settlement exists in that area as it complements Callalli Antiguo on the south. It is worth nothing that a principal prehispanic road along the Upper Colca valley lay on the south bank of the river where the route passes through to Canocota en route to Chivay. This road appears to have passed by the confluence area in the vicinity of Callalli Antiguo and as a major thoroughfare it is an appropriate place to position an administrative center.

/Figs_Ch6/B3_LatePrehisp/Block3_LH.jpg

Figure 6-80. Block 3 Late Horizon diagnostic materials

To the west of Callalli the 2003 survey encountered a settlement that is known locally as "Callalli Antiguo" (F. Windischhofer 2003, pers. comm.). The site sprawls over the natural terraces just south of the confluence of the Colca with the Llapa, across from Sibayo. An extensive part of the site is located adjacent to the main road, while a cluster of collapsed structures, including houses and chulpas, are located just on the southern side of a ridge that divides the site in half. One might expect to find an Inka administrative site in this area. If this were an administrative site, however, it would also be fitting to encounter a number of well-constructed structures with Inka features, such as trapezoidal doors and cut-stone masonry as observed by Wernke (2003) at a number of sites in the main Colca Valley

/Figs_Ch6/B3_LatePrehisp/A030662.jpg

Figure 6-81. Callalli Antiguo [A03-662] and surroundings.


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Figure 6-82. A03-662 north sector of Callalli Antiguo agricultural sector, with two individuals walking together in the center of the photo providing scale and the Río Llapa and the town of Callalli in the background.

Vestiges of terraces are apparent in this larger, 4.2 hectare cultivated area of A03-662, and the sector appears to have been in agricultural production at one time where it is may have been involved in dry land production of high altitude seed-plants Chenopodium. Old natural terraces of the Río Llapa, slight terraces visible in the site overview photo below (Figure 6-82), were plowed and planted using field boundaries that follow terrace edges accentuated by the rocks that were thrown along the margins during field clearing. Some suggestion of eroded canal features were evident as well, implying that some form of irrigation was achieved, although such irrigation would likely have required diverting water from Quebrada Taukamayo to the east (adjacent to A02-26, see Figure 6-62)

Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period

As has been discussed above, the role of regional states in the Colca valley during the Middle Horizon is somewhat enigmatic. Wari influences are apparent in architecture and ceramic attributes, but direct evidence of Wari control has not been encountered. No evidence of Tiwanaku, a principal consumer of Chivay obsidian, has been encountered in the region. The local Middle Horizon ceramic type defined by Wernke (2003) was encountered in low densities in Block 3, although generally in spatial association with LIP sherds suggesting a continuity of economic and settlement patterns.

During the Late Intermediate Period there appears to have been a significant increase in population in the Block 3 region. The founding myth of the Collagua people, as recorded by a Spanish ethnohistoric source, has them conquering the Colca valley upon their descent from the Mount Collaguata near Velille in Espinar (Cusco) 120 km north of this region (Ulloa Mogollón 1965 [1586]; cited in Wernke 2003: 80). Data is not available from this surface survey to test the alleged population replacement, but some continuity in land use pattern is apparent from the occupation of areas with both local Middle Horizon ceramics and LIP ceramics.

One site that shows ceramics from throughout the sequence that includes the possible Formative Period (Chiquero), the Middle Horizon, LIP, and Late Horizon, is the site of Taukamayo [A02-26] discussed in more detail in Early Agropastoral section (seeFigure 6-60). This site has been partially destroyed by a creeping landslide that has resulted in shuffling of stratigraphy within the displaced slump deposit and the exposure of a variety of artifacts from the prehistoric sequence. In the creep debris there are concentrations of stone associated with LIP and LH ceramics that suggest that chulpas, perhaps similar to the one observed at a site immediately to the north [A03-673], were built along the terrace that has since collapsed in the creep.
/Figs_Ch6/B3_LatePrehisp/Block3_MH-LIP.jpgFigure6-78. Block 3 Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period features.

Distinctive features from the LIP include a number of shared features from the Titicaca Basin mentioned previously. These consist of pukaras, chulpasand distinctive types of cave burials. Pukaras are fortified hilltops settlements usually occupied only for short-term, defensive purposes (Arkush 2005;Stanish 2003: 209-218;Wernke 2003: 251-265).

Agricultural production

While agriculture is very limited in the modern economy of the Callalli area, evidence of relatively extensive past agriculture is apparent along the Terrace 1 and 2 margins of the Río Llapa. In the vicinity of A03-785 and A03-797 on the east side of Block 3, extensive areas of previously furrowed agricultural lands are evident. Artifact associations with these agricultural lands primarily belong to the Late Intermediate Period and Late Horizon, but the remains of a colonial site near A03-785 is apparent as well.

Structures

On the north side by the road an agricultural sector was encountered with a half-dozen collapsed rock structures including three structures of rounded rectangular form that may have been domestic. These three structures have walls that were constructed using a double coursed design with mortar, and the walls tilt slightly inward. Wernke (2003: 197-199) describes circular houses as being common for pastoral peoples in the higher altitude portions of the Colca valley beginning at the site Laiqa Laiqa near Tuti around 3900 masl. Rounded-rectangular structures are therefore unusual at this altitude in the valley. The double coursed walls of A03-663 measured approximately 90cm in thickness. Other possible explanations for these structures are that they served as storage silos (although the Late Horizon Qolqa storage silos are not found in the Colca valley), or these buildings could have been large burial towers. The ceramics collected in the immediate vicinity of these buildings span the Late Prehispanic with a single local Middle Horizon sherd, several LIP Collagua sherds, and Collagua-Inka LH sherds.

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Figure 6-83. Base of walls of structure
A03-663 in Callalli Antiguo.

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Figure 6-84. Collapsed wall of A03-663 structure.

Ceramics

Surface collections of pottery from the area of Callalli Antiguo reveal that the site is a multicomponent occupation, but that the area appears to have been primarily a Late Horizon settlement. No brushed, unslipped pottery similar to the Chiquero Formative described by Wernke (2003) for the main Colca valley was found in this area.

Period

Style

Beaker

Bowl

Pitcher/Jar

Plate

Unknown

Total

LH

Chucuito-Inka

1

1

LH

Inka

1

2

3

LH

Collagua-3

2

2

4

LH

Collagua-Inka

1

1

LIP-LH

Collagua

1

1

1

3

LIP

Collagua-2

3

3

MH

Local MH

1

1

Table 6-57. Diagnostic ceramics from Callalli Antiguo [A03-662] and vicinity.

The ceramics data suggest that this area, which does not have a pukara adjacent to it, was settled following the Inka conquest in the Late Horizon.

Lithics

A relatively large percentage of obsidian cores were observed at this site, particularly in the southern sector by the houses and chulpasshown on Figure 6-79. It is notable that one half of the fifteen Ob1 cores found in Block 3 were found here, and they are relatively large cores for Block 3.

Callalli Antiguo Cores

Block 3 Surface Collection

Material

No.

m % Cortex

mWt

sWt

No.

m % Cortex

mWt

sWt

Obsidian

7

10

35.9

6.82

17

5.0

23.2

13.1

Volcanics

1

20

117.8

-

2

7.5

87.7

42.6

Chalcedony

1

20

27.1

-

4

16.7

47.5

18.1

Chert

3

42.1

61.6

32.3

18

32.1

57.17

33.8

Total

12

32.1

48.4

29.0

41

21.6

43.6

31.3

Figure 6-85. Cores at Callalli Antiguo [A03-662] and vicinity compared with all of Block 3.

It appears that obsidian cores were being transported here from the Maymeja area disproportionately to the rest of Block 3. The other site with a large number of Ob1 obsidian cores (n=6) is Taukamayo [A02-26] that was tested with the A02-26u1 unit and the u2 profile.

Mortuary features

Chulpaburial towers (Stanish 2003: 229-234;Wernke 2003: 225-233) are found throughout the Block 3 area on promontories and sometimes in caves or niches in cliff faces. Chulpaswere constructed during the LIP and LH in this region, while cist tombs are known to date from the preceding Middle Horizon. Few Block 3 chulpasare standing, and many of the stones appear to have been reused in nearby modern field walls. Cave burials were also encountered where the interments were "cocoon bundle" burials (de la Vega, et al. 2005;Wernke 2003: 233-234); this kind of interment was evident in the partially looted cave burial of A03-815 on the north end of the Block 3 survey area.

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Figure 6-79. Recently looted cocoon-type interment from A03-815.

Pukaras

A number of pukaras were encountered in the Block 3 area survey. Several of these [A03-607 and A03-796] include only small construction efforts on single walls, while a few pukaras had two or three defensive walls and structures on top, such as A03-1082. The most extensive evidence of pukara construction in Block 3 comes from A03-935, a large pukara on top of the lower sector of the Castillos de Callalli (the lower formation is also known as Cabeza de Leon) with natural escarpments over 50m high that were supplemented by four rows of walls on various areas of the hill. Three rows of walls were also encountered blocking access via the gullies close to Quelkata cave. This pukara represents a large, defensible zone.

Another relatively large pukara, Condorquiña [A02-6] was encountered in 2002 just over 5 km south along the west side of the Pulpera drainage (shown in Figure 6-69). Pukara Condorquiña has three major rows of walls and the remains of 10 oval structures on the summit the majority of them measuring about 1.8 x 2.3 m across.

6.6. Chapter summary discussion

These data demonstrate that while obsidian procurement and local consumption had notable variation in certain prehispanic periods, some structuring aspects of regional obsidian consumption remained stable. Some of the expectations of distance-decay are borne-out diachronically. For example, despite the proximity of the Chivay source to Block 2 and Block 3, obsidian never dominates the lithic assemblage in Block 3, and by weight obsidian never dominates in Block 2 despite wide evidence from many small flakes. Although the manufacturing advantages of obsidian are well known, it appears that its utility was sufficiently specific that it was not widely used by local populations despite abundant access only a few hours from their communities. The following chapter will explore in more detail the results of test excavations in each of the three blocks discussed here, and subsequently Chapter 8 will discuss synthetically the implications of these data in light of regional obsidian consumption patterns from Chapter 3.